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- Volume 23, Issue 3, 2010
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 23, Issue 3, 2010
Volumes & issues
Volume 23, Issue 3, 2010
Author Jean Migabo KalereSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp I –VI (2010)More Less
In post-conflict and recently liberalised contexts, justice and peace become inextricability linked. Indeed, the very nature of these settings demands that justice respond sensitively to the cries of victims in order to facilitate a lasting peace. In this regard, it has been argued that justice can contribute to peace building after a dictatorship regime, or at the end of armed conflicts. Given this, could international judicial institutions including the International Criminal Court (ICC) contribute to the peace building efforts by providing justice for victims? This kind of inquiry is particularly relevant to conflict ridden contexts such as the Great Lakes Region of Africa. Since 1990, the Great Lakes Region has experienced a series of armed conflicts, the most notable of which occurred in Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Conflict resolution in each of these cases was facilitated through negotiations between the principle factions, which resulted in a period of political transition in each of the concerned countries and the denouncement or condemnation of the impunity of crimes committed during conflict. However, given the ongoing gross human rights violations in the DRC and increasingly convincing arguments that justice may strengthen current efforts, the question remains whether the struggle against impunity by justice would improve the peace process in the DRC? Responses to this inquiry are chiefly found in two areas: First, can the international community, inclusive of the United Nations (UN), facilitate peace in the Great Lakes Region without strengthening justice? And second, is there any link between justice and peace in the DRC? These concerns form the centre of this discussion with a multi-layered analysis of the problematic of peace and justice in the DRC, approached from contextual, conceptual and judicial standpoints. Contextually, the issue of the popular will of justice in the DRC is explored and the national and international dynamics surrounding the military, economy and politics in the DRC are analysed. The conceptual frame is drawn from geopolitical mechanisms; within this framework international politics are contrasted with international public law or penal law, as it pertains to the Great Lakes Region. The judicial approach of this piece is informed by the challenges that the judicial institutions, including the International Criminal Court are facing in dealing with justice in the DRC.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 1 –15 (2010)More Less
This article reflects research of which the aim is to increase our collective knowledge of the modus operandi of serial rapists in South Africa in an attempt to contribute to the prevention and prosecution of perpetrators. The sample consists of 22 convicted cases of serial rapists and reflects 204 victims. The authors note that a mere understanding of the modus operandi of serial rapists is not sufficient to fully understand the behaviour of these perpetrators. However, they draw attention to the argument that understanding the perpetrator's modus operandi has been recognised by both criminal investigators and academics as making a valuable contribution to understanding crimes, including that of serial rapists. A behavioural checklist was developed to provide assistance with accounting for the chronological pattern of the crime from the time of victim acquisition to the actual attack. The rational choice perspective and routine activity theory were then used as an organising framework within which to analyse the strategies of the perpetrator. The results indicated that the modus operandi exhibited by a group of serial rapists in South Africa differs from offenders in other countries. Aspects of the routine activity theory is contextualised and utilised to interpret the current findings. The authors highlight shortcomings of the current research and suggest how the current findings should form the basis of further research.
Author R. SnymanSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 16 –39 (2010)More Less
The vision of police professionalism as police officials who perform their work in an impartial and skillful manner is often marred by the stark reality of their work environment. The focus of this study is on the attitude of police officials towards their way of being professional, which is reflected in the manner in which they conduct their work. The research has been approached from a constructionist worldview, with appreciative inquiry as the meso-philosophical perspective. The process of appreciative inquiry is vested in the notion that organisations are sustained by best practices, instead of focusing on problems, gaps, and inadequacies. This article attempts to contribute to the knowledge base of professionalism in policing by exploring the meaning of professionalism for police officials, in a particular context. Making meaning of a lived experience is associated with the explorative and descriptive design of this study, which provides insight into the life world of the participants. The research context is a suburban police station, which is regarded as a priority station in Gauteng. A purposive convenient sample of 12 participants was used and in-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. The analysis technique of Tesch was utilised and independent co-coding and member checking contributed to the trustworthiness of the research results. The participants identified seven characteristics that were central to their professional way of being, and cited negative ways of professional being that they encountered at the police station. They voiced their opinion about the challenges in the police officials' work context that need to be corrected and called for the constructive implementation of regulations to foster a sense of pride of place, discipline, and respect for themselves and others. They identified the instalment and maintenance of a core value system based on the characteristics of professionalism and their way of being professional, as being at the foundation of professionalism in policing.
The relationship between ethical behaviour and self-concept amongst a group of secondary school teachers in the Northern CapeSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 40 –52 (2010)More Less
The problem of unethical behaviour in South Africa is of increasing importance, as indicated by disturbing crime statistics. A specific area of interest concerning ethical behaviour involves South African educators. Various incidents of unethical conduct and crime were reported amongst teachers. In light of this, it is important to focus on the factors that could influence unethical behaviour amongst educators in South Africa. Researchers have indicated a relationship between self-concept and ethical behaviour. The manner in which these variables are related amongst South African secondary teachers has however not been demonstrated yet. In order to determine the relationship between ethical behaviour and self-concept, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale and the Work Beliefs Questionnaire were applied on an availability sample of 70 secondary school teachers in the Northern Cape Area. Results indicated highly significant relationships (p ≤ 0,01) between the following self-concept dimensions and ethical behaviour: "social self" and ethical behaviour, "personal self" and ethical behaviour, as well as "physical self" and ethical behaviour. Significant results (p ≤ 0,05) were found between "value self" and ethical behaviour, "critical self" and ethical behaviour, as well as "family self" and ethical behaviour. A number of recommendations were made. Firstly, in the light of the influence that the level of self-concept has upon ethical behaviour, it is advisable that teaching organisations consider self-concept during the selection of secondary school teachers. Secondly, self-concept should be taken into account when planning organisational interventions and training with regard to improving ethical behaviour. Thirdly, self-concept development, which may improve ethical behaviour amongst secondary school teachers, should be rewarded within organisational context.
Author J.R. MartinSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 53 –70 (2010)More Less
South African vigilante organisations offer a unique perspective of non-state, informal community policing. Over the past 25 years, the incidences of private citizens banding together to dispense their own "street justice" have proliferated, particularly in areas suffering from high crime and socio-economic disadvantage. Many vigilantes operate with significant community support and while vigilantism offers the promise of security to millions of South Africans left unprotected by the public police or by private security companies, a more sinister side to the vigilante phenomenon has emerged. Reports detailing systematic class and generational persecution, accompanied by consistent and brutal human rights violations, have tarnished the image of these often proudly patriarchal "autonomous citizens". By drawing on theories of nodal governance, this article explores how the young, the poor, women and the socially marginalised have proven especially vulnerable to vigilante violence, and the ways in which vigilantism reproduces a domineering, highly conservative and patriarchal mode of social control.
Problems experienced by detectives in the collection of crime information at the Rustenburg detective unit, North West ProvinceAuthor D. GovenderSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 71 –87 (2010)More Less
This research deals with the nature and extent of problems experienced by detectives in the collection of crime information for the investigation of crime. These problems give rise to poor detective performance. The development of information-led policing offers an alternative to the traditional "reactive" model for the investigation of crime. Information-led policing advocates the targeting, gathering, analysis and dissemination of information, which is used to inform decisions about the prioritisation of problems and allocation of resources to address the problems. Crime information collection has proven to be the most important component of information-led policing. The success of crime information collection is centred on its timely utilisation to combat crime more effectively. The purpose of the study was to determine strengths and weaknesses in the collection of crime information at the Rustenburg Detective Unit in the North West Province of South Africa, in order to gather new knowledge that can improve the situation; furthermore, to apply this knowledge with the aim of enhancing the performance of detectives.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 88 –114 (2010)More Less
In South Africa correctional centres focus primarily on the majority male population (nearly 98% of the inmate population). This often leads to a neglect of the needs of incarcerated women. The first section of this discussion provides a historical account of this extremely vulnerable minority group where-after research findings are presented on the demographics of female incarceration together with an exposition of conditions in corrections. Finally, the phenomenon of incarcerated mothers is explored focussing on both the issue of children who are allowed to stay with their mothers in correctional centres, as well as those who have to remain in open society while the mother remains incarcerated.
Provision of health care and social services for child rape survivors : factors predicting the extent of service provisionAuthor S.J. CollingsSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 115 –121 (2010)More Less
The present study examined the extent of health and social service provision in a consecutive sample of 200 child rape survivors who presented for medico-legal assessment at a state hospital located in the North Durban area of KwaZulu-Natal,South Africa. For purposes of the study, a child was regarded as having received "full service provision" if they benefited from all three of the following: (a) provision of at least one counselling or social work consultation within six months of initial hospital presentation; (b) provision of a full course of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis medication within a month of initial presentation; and (c) the case being referred for prosecution within two years of initial presentation. "Partial service provision" was defined as the child benefiting from only one or two of the forms of service provision specified above; and "no service provision" was defined as the child not benefiting from any of the specified forms of service provision. The analysis revealed that 28% of survivors received "no service provision", with a lack of service provision being significantly more likely in cases where the child presented outside of normal working hours and where the abuse had been reported at the KwaMashu police station. These findings are considered in terms of their implications for effective service delivery for child rape survivors.
Author G.F. KirchhoffSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 122 –124 (2010)More Less
International criminology has made great progress in the past fifty years. From a dependent auxiliary branch of science (oriented towards applied criminal law and towards forensic psychiatry), it has developed into an independent psychosocial discipline. This development has been pushed forward and has been documented internationally, especially in North American, and since 2000, in European criminology and victimology conferences. The editor of this handbook has served this development well as observer, contributor and organiser. He belongs to the great masters of criminology in Germany. His most important contribution is that he served as a bridge between North America and Europe in the development of criminology, integrating those parts that have proven most productive for the science. The development of criminology is a process of moving from the old fashioned offender as a psychopath, and from the (overridden) a-theoretical, multi-factorial approach, to the theoretical understanding of cognitive-social learning of becoming an offender as well as becoming a victim. It reaches from a purely offender-oriented criminology to the contemporary social-psychological, tripartite approach encompassing society, offender and victims.
Long Road Home : Building Reconciliation and Trust in Post-War Sierra Leone, Laura Stovel : book reviewAuthor Shibu SangaleSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 23, pp 125 –126 (2010)More Less
The history of the world often recounts the delicate balance between war and peace, telling and re-telling the tales of formation and reformation that have repeatedly redefined societies. Indeed, the underlying existential journey of contemporary historical studies continually demand that researchers seek out fleeting answers to questions such as : "who are we?" and "what do we want?" The quest for national consensus on these pivotal inquires has resulted in a trend of conflicts that span Africa. In this vein, the 1991-2002 Sierra Leonean war resulted in extreme acts of violence against civilians by non-military combatants. Given these circumstances, the integration of ex-combatants after the war has been a challenge for post-war Sierra Leone. Laura Stovel's text explores these dynamics, focusing her research on the tenuous nature of reconciliation and trust in the country.