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- Volume 24, Issue 1, 2011
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 24, Issue 1, 2011
Volumes & issues
Volume 24, Issue 1, 2011
Author I. WallerSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp I –IV (2011)More Less
Seemingly, during the month of the FIFA Soccer World Cup in South Africa, the South African Police Service (force) (SAPS) prevented major instances of violence against foreign tourists and local residents. The question that begs to be asked is: Is it likely for a month, let alone a year, that SAPS, without outside assistance, can prevent any major violence in the townships, schools, and streets of South Africa? The evidence shows a resounding 'No'. In his foreword to the landmark World Health Organization Report on Violence and Health in 2002 (just one of numerous prestigious reports that shows how to prevent and reduce violent crime), Nelson Mandela reiterates that violence can be prevented. However, South Africa is not reducing violence because it is not utilising best practices. Instead, the true extent of violence that continues to damage and corrode the lives of ordinary citizens and communities in post apartheid South Africa, is denied by official crime statistics and met (at times) with an ineffective government response of rather expensive 'band aids' instead of the implementation and monitoring of effective prevention and reduction strategies.
Psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder and dissocial personality disorder in a group of unsentenced prisonersSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 1 –18 (2011)More Less
Antisocial personalities are viewed as being either one disorder or different disorders with certain overlapping characteristics. These syndromes are clouded by uncertainties as discrepancies exist between the two different viewpoints which are reflected in research results. Cultural differences also add to the confusion. In the present study, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), dissocial personality disorder (DPD) and psychopathy among Sesotho-speaking unsentenced prisoners were compared empirically. More specifically, the prevalence of these disorders and their co-morbidity were determined. Biographical variables, such as the particular offence committed, the highest grade completed at school, the number of teenage arrests, marriage and family criminality were also compared. The group with a disorder (ASPD, DPD and / or psychopathy) was compared to the group without any of the three disorders, while the group with a single diagnosis (ASPD, DPD or psychopathy) was compared to the group without the specific single diagnosis. Gender differences were also discussed. Both expected and surprising results were obtained. Similarities and differences regarding personality characteristics, biographical variables and prevalence were found between all three disorders. These differences suggest that they are three distinct disorders, whilst the similarities indicate a significant degree of overlap. The prevalence of the three disorders was found to be higher than that reported in the general population, but lower than that reported in the prison population.
Author P. RockSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 19 –43 (2011)More Less
Having been invited to South Africa to reflect on the current state of criminological theory, it seemed appropriate to explore empirically quite what the trends and foci of the discipline have been over the last few decades. This article attends chiefly to work appearing in The British Journal of Criminology because that is the medium with which I am most familiar, but it also compares and contrasts its findings with a content analysis of Theoretical Criminology and Criminology and Criminal Justice. The conclusions which one is bound to draw is that all the stories we have told ourselves about the development of the discipline in and around the United Kingdom are quite misleading; and that there has been no time at which any single theory or substantive theme has been in dominance. To the contrary, the criminology presented in those journals is remarkably diverse and heterodox. If any feature does distinguish it, it has been the discipline's anchorage in more or less theoretically sophisticated descriptions of the empirical world of crime, justice and corrections.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 44 –66 (2011)More Less
To what extend is the traditional model of imprisonment still relevant today? Has the time come for a radical re-thinking of the notion of punishment? Is restorative justice the notion that will 'penetrate' the prisons' walls and manage to alter and re-shape the concept of imprisonment? Restorative justice advocates have been sceptical about the compatibility and appropriateness of implementing restorative programmes in prison regimes. Although such programmes, being largely at an experimental phase, have already been developed within custodial settings, critics still tend to be conflicted about the possibility of integrating a restorative justice ethos within a punishment-based institution, such as prison. These criticisms, raised in the present article, are based on existing conceptual and operational obstacles concerning the very nature of prisons, which are taken into consideration before envisaging or providing guidelines for the construction of a 'restorative prison'.
Author H. HargovanSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 67 –82 (2011)More Less
As more research seeks to unravel questions about the efficacy and effectiveness of restorative justice, this new paradigm finds itself in an entrepreneurial phase with program creation, practice, research, evaluation and outreach being carried out collaboratively across diverse intersecting groups. Not restricted to a particular approach or program, restorative justice as a set of values and vision of social reform places emphasis on the offender's personal accountability to those harmed by the offence directly or indirectly (which may include the community and / or the victim) and an inclusive decision making process that encourages active involvement of key participants with the goal of remedying the harm caused by the offence. While one noted restorative justice scholar alludes to the tendency to engage in 'butterfly collecting' (Crawford, 2002), another cautions us to 'mind the gap' between theory and practice; alerting academics and practitioners alike of the need to understand the 'real story' (Daly, 2003a & 2003b). Whether engaged in theoretical, empirical or practical activity, restorative justice advocates, academics and / or practitioners are placing greater emphasis on evaluation and its future challenges.
Author B.C. BensonSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 83 –95 (2011)More Less
In the face of violent crime in South Africa, heritage-related crime fades into oblivion. Statistically, there is no evidence of the true extent of this crime in South Africa. Using purposive and snowball sampling the researcher selected participants from both the law enforcement and heritage sectors in South Africa and probed the issue with a semi-structured interview schedule. To address the issue of the importance of heritage crime, the participants were asked how important they thought it was to address heritage crime in South Africa when there was so much violent crime. A data analysis spiral was used to analyse the data. While all the participants emphasised the importance of addressing heritage crime, three distinct and separate themes emerged, namely a too narrow understanding of what heritage is, the perceived seriousness of heritage crime as a crime, and international best practices in terms of addressing heritage crime. The results indicate that museums as custodians of the national patrimony need to open a discourse to define / re-define the collective understanding of heritage. Moreover, there needs to be a realisation that heritage in terms of eco-tourism impacts positively, not only on the national economy, but within local communities too. Failure to safeguard this attraction will effectively cut off the head of the goose that lays the golden egg. Finally, the South African Police Service would do well to consider the reestablishment of a specialised capacity that would undertake investigations against the perpetrators of crime against the art and heritage objects of this country.
Author R. SteynSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 96 –104 (2011)More Less
Substance use and abuse are often associated with police work and exposure to trauma. A detailed description is provided on the extent of substance use and the effects thereof on a sample of 217 police officials. Substance use was assessed with the World Health Organisation's Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening, and exposure to trauma with the Post-Traumatic Diagnostic Scale. Alcohol (41% of respondents) and tobacco (28% of respondents) are the substances used most frequently. 18% of the respondents admit to experiencing problems related to alcohol use and 27% wish to minimise consumption or stop using it. The figures for tobacco use are 14% and 22%. Exposure to trauma results in an increased use of substances such as alcohol and tobacco products and the uptake of less socially accepted substances, such as cocaine, although the numbers for such uptake were small. Recommendations are made regarding the management of substance use in the police.