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- Volume 24, Issue 3, 2011
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 24, Issue 3, 2011
Volumes & issues
Volume 24, Issue 3, 2011
The staggering global economic and human cost of maritime piracy on the eastern seaboard of Africa : editorialAuthor Henri FoucheSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp I –III (2011)More Less
In November 2010 the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Mr Ban Ki-moon, stated that piracy has had an immense impact on the economies of East Africa and the wider world. Furthermore, that international trade routes are being threatened and goods in the region becoming more expensive. The total cost of piracy to the global economy has been estimated at between seven and twelve billion US$ per year and the estimated annual cost to regional economies at 1,25 billion US$. The losses to the fishing and tourism industries of the Seychelles, a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), are estimated to be in the region of US$ six million per year, while the trade impact on Kenya is estimated at a loss of US$414 million. It has also been calculated that around two billion US$ is spent each year on naval operations (both by African and international forces) off the coast of Somalia in order to deter and disrupt the pirates operating in the region. Over 750 Somali piracy suspects have been tried or are awaiting trial in more than 11 countries. The cost of these trials and imprisonment in 2010 was estimated to be 31 million US$.
Human trafficking as an organised crime in South Africa : pre-, during and post Soccer World Cup 2010Author Cornelis RoelofseSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 1 –19 (2011)More Less
Human trafficking, despite the international culture of human rights, is increasing worldwide. Big events, such as the Olympic Games and the Soccer World Cup are labeled as fruitful opportunities for human traffickers. This article analyses human trafficking within the context of organised crime in South Africa and looks at the potential for human trafficking with the backdrop of the Soccer World Cup of 2010 in South Africa. It is based on a study of some big events that took place elsewhere in the world. It also looks at post-Soccer World Cup trafficking and how to curb this crime in the future. Unfortunately, due to the lack of specific legislation to deal with human trafficking, the real picture of human trafficking in South Africa prior and during the Soccer World Cup 2010 may never fully emerge. In this regard, this article is contextual and not post facto, as the facts will come in bits and pieces over a long time. Some studies (See Gould and Richter, 2010; IANS. 2010) conducted of sex workers (some pre-, during and post-World Soccer Cup 2010) were also analysed to bring human trafficking into context of the article. Due to the lack of a dedicated Act to deal with human trafficking, we may never know what happened prior, during and immediately after the 2010 Soccer World Cup.
The investigation of human trafficking : an impossible mission without elemental identification of the crimeAuthor Juanida HorneSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 20 –30 (2011)More Less
Human trafficking has not only awakened a great deal of interest within the academic world, but its inhumanness has also been seriously questioned within local communities. This concern of communities is placing increasing pressure on law enforcement agencies to act swiftly in their attempts to prevent and combat this daunting crime. Although research on human trafficking in South Africa is still in its infancy, it has became apparent that one of the unique challenges of combating human trafficking is the ability of investigating officers to understand and deal with the complexities of identifying and investigating this crime. The aim of this study was to provide more clarification on the general elements of this so-called hidden crime to aid investigating officers to gain a better understanding and thus be able to identify it. In-depth, individual interviews were conducted with six police investigators, currently investigating trafficking cases, with a total of 90 years' investigation experience. Content analysis was applied that provided some clarity on the difficulty experienced in identifying and understanding the crime of trafficking. Three main themes emerged, namely the elements of the crime, its prevalence and the identification of the crime. The results of the research provide practical guidelines and recommendations to assist police officials to more successfully investigate these cases.
Author Shanta SinghSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 31 –47 (2011)More Less
The recent spate of crimes, allegedly committed by foreign nationals in South Africa, has prompted some South Africans to blame crime in general on foreign migrants. Drawing on annual statistical analysis of inmates within South African prisons conducted by the Department of Correctional Services, this research reflects on the increase of foreign nationals in South African Prisons since 2005. Furthermore, media reports, namely newspapers, television and radio, have alluded to the increase in the levels of xenophobia among many South Africans. In this research, interviews were conducted with prison officials and awaiting-trial foreign national prisoners at Medium A, Westville Prison, Durban, South Africa. Against the background of overcrowded prison conditions, the violence that emerges from South African society and the dearth of proper statistics, the question solicited is: Are these claims of crimes committed by foreigners in South Africa true or mere speculation? The findings of this research indicate that some foreign nationals do commit crime in contrast to the myth that most foreign nationals are offenders. The experiences of awaiting-trial foreign national detainees are documented in order to add their voices to the debate on crime, migration and xenophobia in South Africa.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 48 –59 (2011)More Less
This study assessed the extent to which exposure to traumatic events affected the traumatic stress response of male and female police officers. A convenience sample of male and female police officers (n = 66: n Male=46, n Female=20) was surveyed at an Eastern Cape police station. The following instruments were used: 1) Biographical questionnaire 2) PTSS-10 scales 3) and the stress incident scale. Findings of this study indicate that the frequency of exposure to stressful incidents especially for more serious events is significant. The four most frequent stressful incidents experienced by all participants were: 1) finding a corpse after murder (86.4%); 2) Responding to a scene involving accidental injury of a child (84.8%); 3) finding a corpse (died of natural causes) (84.8%); and 4) duty related violence (non-shooting) (84.8%). Female participants' results indicated a positive relationship between frequency of stressful incidents and total threat, anxiety, helplessness and PTSS-scale score, whereas male participants' results indicate no such significant relationship. Findings on male participants, however, indicate a positive relationship between years of service in police, age of police officers and PTSS-scale score, while female participants' results indicated no such relationship.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 60 –71 (2011)More Less
One of the challenges that faces post-colonial and post-conflict Africa has been the issue of the transformation and legitimisation of police agencies that were and are being used by either the military or the militias for non-policing purposes (Rauch & Van der Spuy, 2006: 15). Police demilitarisation in Africa, as in other parts of the world, had been driven by the need to improve police efficiency and effectiveness. The first national commissioner of the South African Police Service appointed under the new democratic dispensation post-1994, stressed the need for the police to make a clean break with the past. This resulted in the previously militarised police force being transformed into a civilian/community oriented police service that embodied the philosophy of community policing. This change also involved the changeover from a military rank structure to civilian rank labelling. In 2010 the South African Police Service reverted back to its original military rank structure saying that this was being done in order to improve discipline, with the ultimate inference being that it will enable the police to better deal with the high crime levels that are bedevilling communities. Analysing the history of militarisation and demilitarisation in Africa and around the world, this article seeks to determine whether this return to a military-style approach to policing in South Africa will disprove history by showing that a militarised police service can be more effective or reveal that South Africa has failed to learn from its history.
An analysis of drug-related crime in the Western Cape, with specific reference to Mitchells Plain as a hotspot areaAuthor Ben HaefeleSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 72 –82 (2011)More Less
According to South African Police Service (SAPS) crime statistics (2009/10) the Western Cape has the highest number of drug-related crimes reported in the past ten years. The focus of this article firstly is to investigate why there are such a high number of drug-related crimes reported in the Western Cape in comparison with other provinces and secondly, why are there areas in the Western Cape with higher drug-related crime figures than in other areas reported? For example, Mitchells Plain Police Station on the Cape Flats has the highest drug-related crime figures of all the police stations in South Africa. In order to find answers to these questions, the Social Disorganization Theory as well as Ward's Theory of Risk and Protective Factors is applied. A case study in Mitchells Plain and a literature review reveals that low economic status, a mixture of different ethnic groups, disrupted families and broken homes are all elements found present in the communities of Mitchells Plain, contributing to "social disorganisation". These factors should be viewed within the broader context of a number of external socio-economic factors that impact on the prevention of substance abuse.
Author Anthony MinnaarSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 83 –97 (2011)More Less
The use of informers in police work has been a contentious issue for many years, particularly the payment for information covertly provided by arrested suspects, often in return for immunity from prosecution. In South Africa such use of informants has also been controversially linked to the pre-1994 political violence. This article looks at the historical use of informants, how it was and is being used in the fight against crime, as well as putting forward some measures for making it more efficient and its more effective utilisation in particular in the fight against organised crime syndicates.
Author Friedo J.W. HerbigSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 98 –113 (2011)More Less
The use of informants in policing and compliance management spheres has, although at times marginalised, long been recognised as an effective crime management conduit. This would seem especially true with regard to the more surreptitious and regimented type crimes, which are, as society evolves, becoming perceptibly more pervasive. This eminently controversial treatise provides an authentic critical exposition of the extent to which principal environmental conservation agencies in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, namely South African National Parks (National agency), CapeNature (Provincial agency) and the City of Cape Town (Metropolitan Municipality) currently utilise informants/informant generated information in the fight against conservation crime - notoriously clandestine in nature. Apart from identifying informant related opportunities and shortcomings an attempt is also made to broadcast, lobby for and entrench the idiom conservation crime/criminology as the terminology of choice in this arena as well as develop its wider intellectual and criminological significance.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 114 –122 (2011)More Less
Crime in modern society has become a social problem that cannot be successfully dealt with by a single agency. High crime levels and increasing demands on police services makes it impossible for police resources to effectively deal with crime and criminality in society. This limitation exposed more people to criminal acts that propelled them to utilise private security companies to enhance their safety and security needs. The utilisation and reliance on the private security by those people who can afford to pay for their services led to the expansion and globalisation of the security industry world wide. This made the security industry to be an important role player in the provision of safety and security in society, which eroded the monopoly of the public police in this regard. Realising their limitations, the police are increasingly embarking on cooperative arrangement that could optimise their legislative powers and the omnipresence of security companies in the fight against crime and criminality. As is the case in many cooperative arrangements, it is anticipated that this arrangement will not be without challenges and difficulties. That is why this study was designed to analyse the relationship, challenges and the impact of this cooperative policing. In addition, this study proposes various ways of dealing with the identified challenges and difficulties in an attempt to protect this noble idea of cooperative policing.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 24, pp 123 –142 (2011)More Less
The new Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 makes provision for preliminary inquiries as an initiative to speed up the criminal justice process for children. These inquiries are compulsory and aim to ensure that important decisions regarding children in conflict with the law are taken within 48 hours of arrest. This process was piloted at the Mangaung One-stop Child Justice Centre in Bloemfontein before the new Act came into operation on 1 April 2010. In this article, the reasons for the introduction of the preliminary inquiry, the process before the preliminary inquiry and the process at the preliminary inquiry are discussed. Since the success of this inquiry is dependent on the input of the different role-players, special attention is given to the functions of those involved in the process. In addition, a case study of a specific child's experience in the child justice system and the impact of the preliminary inquiry on the outcome of the case are discussed. From the discussion on the preliminary inquiry, it is clear that this addition to the child justice system truly contributes to the showcasing of such system. The main features of this are the streamlined process in which the child is managed much quicker than before and can in addition stay in school. Since all the role-players are involved during the preliminary inquiry, informed decisions can be made regarding the child. This makes it possible to make quick decisions regarding diversion or prosecution.