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- Volume 25, Issue 1, 2012
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 25, Issue 1, 2012
Volumes & issues
Volume 25, Issue 1, 2012
Author Marelize SchoemanSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 25, pp I –VII (2012)More Less
Criminal proceedings are legal actions between the state and the accused, with the primary focus to uphold social justice. During legal actions, victims of crime are represented by the state, which often results in the victim becoming the 'forgotten party' in the process. This is primarily because state representation may provide less room for victim participation and for their wishes to be acknowledged. In an ideal scenario, the involvement of the criminal justice system should have positive implications for the victim too, as the responsibility and burden of the judicial process does not lie with the victim alone (Laxminarayan, 2010). In many instances, however, this is not the case, as the court could actually infringe even further on the rights of victims of crime and cause revictimisation by professionals and paraprofessionals working in the criminal justice system (Hill, 2009).
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 25, pp 1 –15 (2012)More Less
Antisocial personalities have been strongly associated with aggression and violence. To determine whether the same findings apply to offenders in South Africa, a sample of 500 male maximum security offenders was assessed with the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R); subscales representing antisocial and dissocial personality disorders from the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire (DIP-Q); and the Aggression Questionnaire. Independent t-test analyses indicated significant differences in aggression between individuals with and those without antisocial personality disorder and dissocial personality disorder respectively. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated that total aggression scores, verbal aggression, and especially anger differ significantly between offenders with various levels of psychopathy.
A conceptual framework of the South African male victim of domestic violence within a heterosexual marriage or cohabitating relationshipSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 25, pp 16 –28 (2012)More Less
This article conceptualises the heterosexual male victim of domestic violence in an attempt to understand his victimisation in the form of emotional, physical and sexual abuse. This is achieved by looking at concepts within domestic violence which fall under the generic term of male battering and/or husband abuse. It is argued that this form of domestic violence is insignificant when compared to woman abuse or wife battering and does therefore not deserve 'conceptual recognition' within the domestic violence context. This article provides evidence for the necessity of conceptual recognition. This discussion is based upon the findings of a doctoral study on the emotional and physical abuse of the male victim of domestic violence within a heterosexual marriage or cohabitating relationship. One of the outcomes and findings of the study was to put into context the concept of a male victim of domestic violence. The dilemma of what constitutes 'normal' and 'abnormal' violence in a relationship and when does abuse transcend socially acceptable behaviour, constitutes a problem. This dilemma of acceptable behaviour is exacerbated by society's view of the male as the stronger sex. It is difficult for society to see the male in the context of a victim, especially if the female is the perpetrator. This article aims to contextualise and redefine the male victim of domestic violence to make the study comprehensive, taking into account finer nuances. No generalisations about the male victims of domestic violence can be made as a result of this study as only four men were interviewed.
Author Theodore PetrusSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 25, pp 29 –40 (2012)More Less
This article seeks to elaborate on some critical issues regarding questions of culpability and accountability, guilt and innocence, victim and perpetrator, within the context of witchcraft-related crime in South Africa. This article examines issues regarding the victims of witchcraft-related crime in the Eastern Cape Province. Some of the critical issues regarding the victims of witchcraft-related crime have been highlighted.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 25, pp 41 –57 (2012)More Less
The anomaly of criminal activities perpetrated by police officials, who have sworn to uphold the law and to serve the public, is focused on in this article. It attempts to elucidate many of the risk factors that encourage the perpetuation of criminality in police organisations from both an international as well as a local perspective. The crime precipitants or risk factors were divided into three pertinent themes: the individual, the organisation and peripheral contributors. The contents of this article reflect empirical findings which apply primarily to the South African Police Service (SAPS) in the Western Cape region. Interviews were conducted with 13 members of the SAPS ranging from deputy Provincial Commissioner to Captain. The various members interviewed belonged to the following police units: support services, organised crime, detective services, legal services, disciplinary management, counter intelligence, psychological services and social services. Eleven knowledgeable individuals from a variety of professions were also interviewed as well as eight police offenders, all of whom were incarcerated in various prisons throughout the Western Cape at the time of their interviews. Based on the results of these interviews, the authors reached conclusions pertaining to police criminality in relation to the threefold of perspectives mentioned. These conclusions are substantiated with correlates from findings from two international commissions of inquiry into police corruption and crime, as well as from other subject related literature.
The role of leadership in reducing unethical behaviour and white-collar crime in an organisational contextSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 25, pp 58 –68 (2012)More Less
The aim of this theoretical qualitative research study was to focus on ethical leadership behaviour-related factors, which may influence employees' decisions to behave ethically or otherwise at work. This will be used as a basis to make practical suggestions on how unethical behaviour and white-collar crime may be reduced. Researchers tend to agree that ethics and ethical behaviour have become two of the most important topics of the new millennium. Reasons for this include well-publicised problems in the financial sector and other industries. Changing business conditions may also expose companies to more unethical conduct and an increase in white-collar crime. Mergers, takeovers, diversification, divestitures, deregulations and the pressure of international competition have increased the ethical vulnerability and incidence of white-collar crime of companies in virtually every industry. The government of South Africa identified the need for initiatives regarding the reduction of levels of crime (including white collar crime), by establishing a comprehensive National Crime Prevention Strategy (1996) as well as The Prevention of Organized Crime Act (1998). As part of their strategy, it was stated that the focus regarding the reduction of crime should be prevention and not crime control. The theoretical model of Stead, Worrel and Stead (1994:113) was used to explain the person-situation interaction of ethical behaviour. This model was then utilised as a basis to suggest organisational and individual interventions, in order to improve the situation with regard to unethical conduct and white-collar crime in South African organisations.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 25, pp 69 –78 (2012)More Less
The South African Police Service (SAPS) indicates violent crime to be the crime category that poses an ultimate threat to the South African society. This creates the impression that there are distinguishable "violent predators" that are lodging an attack on the South African society while the complexity of offending behaviour, on the one hand, and commonality of crime risk factors that may manifest in an unpredictable generic fashion on the other hand, is overlooked. While violent crime is more volatile in its manifestations and its effects more observable, the risk is linked to the offender and not to the offense type. While the offense type is a mere taxonomy of manifested behaviour, it is the offender and the criminal event that serve as prerequisites for predisposing factors to precipitate offending behaviour. It is hypothesized that so-called violent predators are few and far between. It is rather the risk related to the opportunity to offend and the offender's personal life world that serves as "motivation" to offend rather than unique specialized determinants of violence per se. Furthermore, the South African crime context is not unique at all. Crimes of violence are more a consequence of the dynamics of offending behaviour and consequent risk factors. The real risk can be found in the "cafeteria-style" or versatility of offending which renders risk and effect unpredictable and uncertain. However, the determination of predictability and risk reduction is possible on an individualized level. The author conducted a third-generation assessment on two populations of high risk offenders based on a violent and non-violent dichotomy to compare findings in order to determine whether any corresponding or dissimilar results emanates from these assessments. This is necessary because a dedicated approach to the understanding of criminogenic dynamics can reduce crime risks and the manifestation over time. The statistical results indicate that the distributions in the two offender population do not have a statistically significant difference and that the variability of the data in the two populations is actually the same. This underscores the complexity of the South African crime context proportionate to a predominantly "cafeteria-style" of offending and criminal versatility. Unless the underlying crime risk factors are addressed from a holistic point of view, the perceived "violent" crime risk will not be reduced significantly.
Author Doraval GovenderSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 25, pp 79 –96 (2012)More Less
In South Africa, crime is becoming increasingly diverse, sophisticated and difficult to combat. Criminologists believe that specific knowledge, skills and attitudes are required to address crime, criminals and victims. Communities and businesses feel that the police is not coping with the rising crime. High levels of property related crimes have forced communities and business entities to provide for their own security. The terrorist attacks of 9/11 on the World Trade Centre in New York and the Pentagon in Washington have helped shape new policies, strategies and operations of policing agencies and private security services across the world. Poor crime information management was found to be the main weakness in policies, strategies and operations. Crime information and analysis were not considered to be important in the sequence of activities aimed at conceiving, implementing and evaluating measures to combat crime and preventing losses before 9/11 as the focus was on reactive policing. Practitioners have started to view crime information management and analysis from a new paradigm. The information environment has changed the approach of the security practitioner. Information management is now considered fundamental for decision-making and the formulation of security strategies. The aim of this article is to examine information management strategies that have been successfully used to combat crime and prevent losses.
An impact evaluation of the restructuring of the South African Police Services Family Violence, Child Protection and Sexual Offences units : the case of the West Rand FCS UnitAuthor Johan Van GraanSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 25, pp 97 –113 (2012)More Less
The restructuring of the Family Violence, Child Protection and Sexual Offences (FCS) unit during 2006 had been a contentious topic of debate among the South African non-governmental sphere and prosecutors who deal with FCS-related matters and also among members of this unit. This process caused widespread concern among internal and external stakeholders. This research aimed to identify and describe the impact of the restructuring process on this unit's functions to assess the internal and external climate on service delivery. After the re-introduction of this unit to its former structure in 2010 the impact the 2006 restructuring process had on the unit's functions was of importance. This article is a report on the impact of the restructuring process on the internal and external climate of service delivery of data, generated from a sample of FCS members, prominent non-governmental organisations and senior public prosecutors The experiences of the selected sample was probed by means of individual interviews and focus group interviews, using a semi-structured interview schedule, to promote knowledge and understanding of the restructuring process through impact evaluation. From the results of this research, it appeared that the restructuring of this unit had been unsuccessful, since this process had a detrimental effect on the service delivery of the unit as well as on the client system it served. This study was conducted in 2007/08 and was restricted to the West Rand policing area in Gauteng. This study concluded that the restructuring of the FCS impacted negatively on the services rendered by this unit.