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- Volume 26, Issue 2, 2013
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 26, Issue 2, 2013
Volumes & issues
Volume 26, Issue 2, 2013
Information security, cybercrime, cyberterrorism and the exploitation of cybersecurity vulnerabilities : editorialAuthor Anthony MinnaarSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 26, pp I –IV (2013)More Less
For any agency wanting to deal, not only with cybercrime but also cyberterrorism, it is important for executives, managers, police and security personnel to have a basic grasp and understanding of one of the most intricate, multi-faceted and complex constructions developed by humans, namely: cyberspace. Simply put cyberspace is the realm of electronic communication in whatever form it might take. Cyberspace is also sometimes referred to as the domain or sphere of 'virtual reality'.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 26, pp 1 –14 (2013)More Less
In Namibia today, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) has become common-place and perpetrators often attempt to conceal the crime by murdering victims. Although there are studies looking at IPV in Namibia, none explicitly focuses on male perpetrators of gender- based violence. The objective of this research was to gain an understanding of male perpetrators of this violence. More specifically, it examines the relationships between perpetration, victimisation, substance abuse and the three psychosocial variables of psychoticism (P), neuroticism (N), introversion-extraversion (E) that have been constructed in prior research as causes of partner violence. Data were collected using both quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (focus group discussions) tools. The psychological profiles of the perpetrators were assessed using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) (1985). Among the major findings were that violent inmates register high EPQ P, E and N scores suggesting that psychological factors were major factors contributing to violent crimes committed against women and girls. Factors such as alcohol consumption, low levels of education, unemployment, socio-economic marginalisation, and poor family systems and socialisation all seem to underlie the violent crimes committed against women and girls. We conclude that current programs for prisoners in Namibia should consider psychotherapy and psychological counselling as tools for modifying deviant behaviour.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 26, pp 15 –29 (2013)More Less
There is a scarcity of knowledge production with regards to cyber stalking as a manifestation of cybercrime in the South African context. This article attempts to make a contribution towards an understanding of some of the aspects involved in the process of cyber stalking, especially since cyber stalking in South Africa is expected to increase as the Internet continues to grow in popularity. The discussion centres on the nature of cyber stalking, incorporating the international prevalence of this form of stalking, and distinguishes cyber stalking from traditional stalking. Additionally, the behaviours associated with cyber stalking, the offenders and victims involved, as well as an examination of the role of social networks, are outlined. Since it took significant legislative demarcation and clarification to enhance the efficacy thereof, the article concludes with a discussion of reactive South African protective measures contained in legislation regarding cyber stalking, namely the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act 25 of 2002, the Domestic Violence Act 116 of 1998 and the Protection from Harassment Act 17 of 2011.
Author W.F.M. LuytSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 26, pp 30 –63 (2013)More Less
According to a government study in the United States of America (USA) fewer than three out of every one thousand inmates report sexual abuse. Regardless of the fact that America faces enormous challenges concerning inmate rape, incidences remain underreported. Inmates adhere to a subculture Code of Silence and do not trust staff. This is something that is not limited to the United States alone. In addition, administrative records do not provide reliable estimates of sexual violence in American correctional settings, irrespective of the fact that the USA promulgated legislation in 2003 to address both sexual violence and the measures to report it. The South African correctional system shares certain fundamental characteristics with the system of the USA. These include problems of a sexual nature and incidences of rape, as pointed out by the Commission of Inquiry into Alleged Incidents of Corruption, Maladministration, Violence or Intimidation into the Department of Correctional Services (2005), also known as the Jali Commission. Against the background of evidence before the Jali Commission (2005) and findings about sexual activities in South African correctional centres, the problem of sexual abuse inside correctional centres cannot be ignored any longer. In fact, inmate rape became a serious problem when South African prison gangs literally meted out a 'death sentence' to rival gang members by having them raped by an inmate who is HIV positive. This practice was confirmed by Dr Gideon Morris of the office of the Judicial Inspectorate. According to Morris this type of punishment is called a 'slow puncture' because the punished inmate will die slowly over time by being infected with AIDS. In May 2007 the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 came into being. The Act broadened the definition of rape in South Africa to include forced anal or oral sex, irrespective of the gender of the victim and of the perpetrator. For the first time in South Africa, through this Act, recognition was given to male rape - rape of a male by another male. Specific requirements in the Act have influenced the mandate of the Department of Correctional Services, with a definite effect on incarcerated inmates. According to previous research different sexual interactions and relationships exist between incarcerated men. Most of these interactions are reported to be abusive and exploitative. They involve rape and coercion, and in particular male rape, largely because the inmate population in South Africa is predominantly male. Rape is, however, not limited to male inmates and incarcerated females are also subjected to incidences that can be classified as rape in terms of the 2007 legislation mentioned above. Newly imprisoned offenders are especially vulnerable because they do not know the inmate subculture and are manipulated. The question is: How does the Department of Correctional Services implement the legislation? This article will discuss this form of crime. It will investigate what the views of inmates and staff are concerning the phenomenon, and what could be done in terms of crime prevention. Particular attention will also be paid to already implemented rape prevention strategies in correctional centres elsewhere in order to bring to the attention of political, academic and correctional services management the problem of rape in correctional centres.
Author Trevor BudhramSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 26, pp 64 –76 (2013)More Less
The banking card industry has grown enormously over the years. In today's world almost every person uses a bank card to make a transaction. The convenience of substituting a bank card for cash provides a safer option to individuals in that they are less prone to becoming victims of contact crimes such as pick pocketing and theft. Criminals, however, are always looking for opportunities to commit crime and card fraud has provided an avenue for criminals to exploit. Card fraud has taken many forms, from thieves using stolen or lost credit or debit cards to buy goods to the greater more sophisticated problem of criminals involved in counterfeit card fraud for example skimming. Skimming is the single biggest contributor of card fraud locally and internationally and as such can be equated to a monster. A monster is described as a large frightening creature of gigantic proportion. The similarities lie in the fact that they both bring about some form of destruction. In skimming such destruction is brought about by the use of a counterfeit card where the genuine data on a cards magnetic strip is electronically copied onto another, without the knowledge of the legitimate cardholder. The various associations that issue bank cards have come up with a number of preventative measures to address counterfeit card fraud and in particular skimmed cards for example the introduction of the chip and pin which aims to replace the magnetic strip security feature. These initiatives, however, have done very little to deter criminals who still commit counterfeit card fraud with impunity.
Author Willie ClackSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 26, pp 77 –91 (2013)More Less
Agriculture is one of the cornerstones in any country's economy. Therefore, the different crimes committed within the rural agricultural communities need to be researched as they impact on the economy and food security of the country. The importance of crimes committed in the rural areas of South Africa is neglected by researchers in the field of humanities and related research areas. In South Africa, livestock theft is the only crime committed on farms which is indicated separately within the National Crime Statistics. Irrespective, the crime is neglected by researchers and the extent of the crime is not comprehended within the criminal justice system or the academia This article will attempt to explore the extent of stock theft in South Africa by focusing on the number of cases reported, livestock stolen and the differences in theft of specific livestock species and the economic impact of crime on agriculture. The article will not deal with any crime theories related to the crime as it is regarded as a separate research topic. It is believed that by elevating the extent of stock theft to a platform where academics studying criminal justice in South Africa take cognisance of the crime, that the social impact on all communities, rural or urban, could then become a research topic.
Assessing conviction rates and nationalities of accused in reported burglary cases in Musina policing precinct : the Zimbabwean factorSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 26, pp 93 –102 (2013)More Less
Crime in South Africa is always a topical issue in politics, the media and a concern of the general public. Often rhetoric is focused on illegal immigrants who are blamed for crime. Apart from this focus, the article also presents a detailed analysis of reported burglaries in the border town of Musina in the Limpopo Province of South Africa, with data presentations on the distinction between business and residential premises as targets. The research also examined police efficiency measured against the closure of cases and how the use of forensic support, as well as assistance from the public featured in the successful prosecution of cases.
Author Gavriel SchneiderSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 26, pp 103 –123 (2013)More Less
The Private security industry is constantly adapting and expanding to fill new and emerging gaps. Many areas traditionally reserved for public security structures (Police, Military, etc.) are now serviced by the private security industry. In recent times, private security has become synonymous with excessive use of force and in many cases linked to thuggery and unprofessional behaviour. By assessing the industries in Australia (focused on Queensland) and South Africa which are vastly different but also very similar in many ways, an understanding of regulation and performance can be created. The benefits of comparison demonstrate differing models and regulatory structures as well as show how the two environments have led to the evolution of various specialisations and categorisations to meet specific needs and challenges. The industry in South Africa has progressed to become three times larger than the police and there is little doubt that the industry is filling significant gaps, resultant from the Police's inability to manage the extremely high levels of crime and violence. The high levels of crime and violence have meant that it is not uncommon for private security officers in South Africa to have to apply lethal force in their day to day duties. In Australia, the industry has not evolved to the same degree but ironically has a higher level of regulation and enforcement than South Africa. However, the Australian industry is showing constant growth and whilst the use of force is not common place, it does occur, primarily in the crowd control (nightclub) environment. In both the Australian and South African industries the interaction and cooperation with the police seems to be an important emerging trend. There are several noted cases of successful Private Public Partnerships (PPP) between the police and private security industry, demonstrating that collaboration can have a direct impact on the reduction in crime. The analysis of the industries in South African and Australia clearly demonstrates the need to further research and develop the evolving field of Security Science based on the increasing size and importance of the security industries in these locations. This finding is indicative of the status of security industries in most other countries.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 26, pp 124 –135 (2013)More Less
In order to effectively help traumatised children to achieve positive outcomes, one must have a clearly defined methodology, underpinned by theory and based on an integrated approach. The first step towards this is clearly to redefine the phenomenon of the sexual abuse of children. As sexual abuse is both a legal and a psychosocial phenomenon, the authors are of the opinion that the South African context necessitates a more integrative definition. The information in this article is therefore aimed at providing health care professionals with an integrative definition that takes into account both the South African legal definition of sexual abuse and the underlying psychosocial factors with which it is associated.
Author Anni HesselinkSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 26, pp 136 –146 (2013)More Less
In South Africa, as is the case internationally, Criminology as a discipline has changed amidst timorously political, economic and social changes that brought about many interdisciplinary convergences. This diversion is characterised by some criminologists as '21st Century Criminology'. South African Criminology has overcome a rigid history and tense competition between the legal reformists, nationalists and critical criminologists. These sub-discipline foci have survived and been substituted by a more multidisciplinary practical field. Modern Criminology embraces a mixture of criminological theories, and crime phenomena which are debated and applied by criminologists within the South African criminal justice system and private sectors. Criminological involvement and contributions are seen (in amongst other fields, but not limited to) within the criminal justice sector, the private sphere and even in the public health domain. This article outlines the evolution of a traditional Westernised Criminology that has progressed to a uniquely practiced science with much to offer in contemporary South Africa. It claims a unique criminological focus (specific focal points) that is associated with specialised assessments, analyses, and explanations appropriate to practice.
Author P.J. PotgieterSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 26, pp 147 –169 (2013)More Less
Prior to 1994, South Africa was ruled by an authoritarian government. Dismantling 'apartheid' in which South Africa was caught-up for almost 46 years, offered the country the opportunity for the first time in its history to develop a democratic-oriented police system. Unlike the authoritarian era with its 'repressive, centralised police force', the South African Police Service (SAPS) promised to be a non-paramilitary police service. Although policing in both post-communist societies (Poland, Lithuania, Hungary, Georgia and Belarus) and post-apartheid era in South Africa managed to successfully 'escape' from chaotic transitional environments, they still suffer similar concerns in terms of policing. For example in terms of: police legitimacy and public trust, police use of illegal force and police accountability. Over the last few years the public image of the police suffered severe criticism because of the involvement of the police in serious crimes such as murder, rape, armed robbery, serious assault, corruption and bribery. Alleged inefficiency and ineffectiveness in dealing with the crime problem and lack of visible deterrence of crime, are some of the regular accusations. The most important image producing sources are: television, personal observation of and/or experiences with the police when executing their duties, daily newspapers and other news media. Although legitimacy of the police has been positively rated by the research group, which was used for this research study, their perceptions relating to the justification of the police appears to be misplaced in favour of the juridical basis instead of the service delivery-to-society basis. Apparently this is as a result of an over-emphasis of the reactive policing function with a retributive inclination. Proactive and reactive policing functions are being rated more important than any of the remote functions. A deep-seated obligation on the part of the research group to engage in the prevention of crime and their willingness to assist the police in rooting out crime, are positive image outcomes. An analysis of police characteristics as possible stimulators for regular crime reporting and steps to improve the police image, are issues of immediate concern which will be discussed.
Public Order Policing in South Africa : capacity, constraints and capabilities, Irvine Kinnes : book reviewAuthor Doraval GovenderSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 26, pp 170 –172 (2013)More Less
This research report examines the capacities, constraints and capabilities of the Public Order Policing Units since the 2006 restructuring of the South African Police Service (SAPS). It is primarily aimed at examining capacity related constraints confronting Public Order Policing Units (POPU) in the South African Police Service and to improve SAPS strategy on the policing of crowds. It is also suitable for the broader Criminal Justice environment, namely lawyers, judges, magistrates, prosecutors, private security practitioners, NGOs and other community-based organisations that provide service, organise, monitor and adjudicate on police action. This report represents a timely discussion on public order policing, at a time when the Farlam Commission of Enquiry is presently investigating the actions of the SAPS Public Order Policing Unit at Marikana (near Rustenburg in the NorthWest Province) during August 2012 that left 34 mineworkers dead and at least 78 injured. The author refers to the Cillié Commission, Goldstone Commission and the Ngoepe Commission's recommendations to serve as the theoretical framework for Public Order Policing in South Africa.