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- Volume 28, Issue 2, 2015
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 28, Issue 2, 2015
Volumes & issues
Volume 28, Issue 2, 2015
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp I –V (2015)More Less
In the 21st century, policing has changed to accommodate evolving societies and their expectations. Policing had to undergo changes because modern, democratic, multicultural societies were oriented towards individual rights, demanding policing by consent than policing through imposition and enforcement of laws. An important aspect to note was the most obvious change in the South African Police Service (SAPS) from 'force' to 'service'. This crucial back-to-basics change, implemented in the South African Police Service (SAPS) in 1994 was reversed in 1998 by police top management to, once again, make the SAPS a quasi-military organisation. This shows that going back to basics may be a fallacy. In reality changing policing back to basics will not succeed if the policing style of front-line managers and top management is not aligned to the overall vision of the SAPS. Since 1994, different National Commissioners came with different leadership styles, and changed the SAPS to fit their views of what the SAPS should be as a policing agency, hence leaving the SAPS to what we have today.
Author Emily RestivoSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 1 –14 (2015)More Less
The purpose of this study was to advance current literature by examining the independent effects of attachment to parents on deviance, while simultaneously considering possible family environment characteristics that may condition that relationship or have a non-linear effect on deviance. Because parents represent the first and perhaps most salient agent of socialisation that children encounter, the bond to parents may be especially consequential for delinquency. To do so, data from the National Youth Survey (NYS) was analysed using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), specifically to test for these effects. The study found that the effects of attachment to parents on deviance are conditioned by two of the three family variables that were considered (perceptions of parental disapproval and negative labelling). Findings also indicated that although the effect of perceived parental disapproval had an initial negative effect on deviance, it does in fact have a non-linear effect. Future research should attempt to study additional family environment variables that may have similar effects. Additionally, future research should consider the actual behaviour of parents and how this affects the relationship between attachment and deviance. Finally, instead of using solely child-perceptions and self-report data, observational may be more reliable.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 15 –31 (2015)More Less
A study by Xie and McDowall (2008: 829), found that people who are victimised in a particular neighbourhood often move to another. Interestingly, they also found that neighbours or people that had been victimised, also tended to move as a result of the victimisation of other people in their neighbourhood. This shows that the influence of victimisation spreads wider than the actual victim and may cause people to move from their present area to a safer one. Criminal victimisation also leads to a more hidden but enduring problem: fear of crime that could become contagious: spreading similarly to a virus. The study amongst a group of South Africans who immigrated to Australia, New Zealand, England and Canada provides some insights on the factors that motivated them to leave South Africa. There are a plethora of studies that focus on victims of crime, in particular the Victims of Crime Surveys that provide ample data on victimisation and feelings of insecurity. South Africa has been labelled the crime capital of the world, particularly as far as the rates for murder and rape are concerned. It is common knowledge that people have left South Africa for many reasons, but crime, as a motivating factor to emigrate, is repeatedly reported in the media. This study particularly addresses the reasons why people left South Africa to settle in Perth, WA. No less than 96,1 percent of the respondents indicated there was a need to escape criminal victimisation in South Africa. Other reasons are: to be free from political discomfort (88,3%), better appreciation of their qualifications and skills (71,8%), escaping affirmative action (64,1%), finding a better job (62,1%) and although serious (contact) crime ratios decreased from 5287 in 2003/4 to 3608 in 2011/12 per 100 000 of the South African population, people's fear of murder and especially aggravated robbery have stabilised (SAPS 2012: 6-7). Compared to the high rate of victimisation before their departure to Australia, the research revealed that none of the respondents, since their arrival in Perth, Western Australia, had experienced any criminal victimisation.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 32 –46 (2015)More Less
According to the 2005 World Health Organisation's study on domestic violence, it is a serious and widespread phenomenon that continues to affect many family relationships worldwide. South Africa is no different to the world; domestic violence in South Africa is committed across geographical, religious, racial and gender boundaries. The Domestic Violence Act (DVA), No.116 of 1998 places positive legal duties on the South African Police Service to act. The South African Police Service's (SAPS) response to domestic violence is managed through administrative procedures outlined in SAPS National Instruction 7 of 1999. This type of response from the SAPS has resulted in numerous complaints being lodged with the Independent Police Investigative Directorate (IPID).The purpose of this article was to find out if the SAPS is policing domestic violence in South Africa. If it is indeed policing domestic violence, then the police response should be in accordance with the duties and powers of the SAPS, as set out in section 205(3) of the Constitution. Using the qualitative approach, the author examined the complaints levelled against the police by victims of domestic violence. The study involved interviews with victims of domestic violence, police officials and a record review of official documents relating to complaints of domestic violence. The data was categorically analysed to determine how the police handled these complaints. The findings suggest that the present police response is not in accordance with section 205(3) of the Constitution. Based on this finding, the study proposes that the present police response be changed to prevent, combat and effectively investigate domestic violence in terms of section 205(3) of the Constitution, so that the crime, the criminal and the victim are equally dealt with.
Author Merlyn BarkhuizenSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 47 –61 (2015)More Less
In South Africa, the male victim of emotional and physical abuse at the hands of his female partner or spouse is generally ignored, minimised or denied, partly due to a lack of research on this 'hidden side' of domestic violence. The main reason for the forgoing is because of the dearth of empirical data that exists on the male victim of domestic violence. It seems not to be considered a problem worthy of academic research or media attention as a result of the lack of research historically on this form of domestic violence. This is as a result of the stereotyping of males as the perpetrators of domestic violence and females as the victims of patriarchal dominance. In addition, it is argued by many that when women resort to violence towards their male partners, it is done in self-defence, or as vengeance and even retaliation against their own victimisation. This article attempts to aid the understanding by giving each of the participants a 'voice' to tell their stories. Each individual's victimisation experience or 'story' is described in a fair amount of detail to give the reader insight into this 'hidden' side of domestic violence.
From stranger to serial : (re)emphasising the value of docket analysis as a linkage tool in serial rape identificationSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 62 –77 (2015)More Less
This article evaluates the use of a rape matrix as a docket analysis tool in a sample of 94 closed and unsolved stranger rape cases reported in Port Elizabeth between 1 January 2007 and 31 January 2008. The study was initiated in January 2009 with the final interviews concluded during November 2013. The primary aim of this research was to determine the value of docket analysis in the identification of possible serial rape activity amongst a sample of unsolved stranger rape cases, and secondary, to analyse and evaluate investigative decision-making in these cases. The sample consisted of cases where a female victim was raped by a single male offender who remained unidentified. This research makes a significant contribution to the field of rape investigation. It does so by demonstrating and explicating the identification of five possible rape series amongst the sample of stranger rape cases that are indicative of serial rape activity. This research also highlights shortcomings in the investigation of these cases, which hamper case linkage. Recommendations are made for more effective investigative strategies, management and identification of serial rape activity amongst stranger rape cases.
'The revolving door' : factors that contribute to the recidivism of incarcerated sex offenders in the Western CapeSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 78 –91 (2015)More Less
Sexual crimes against women and children remain rampant in South Africa. As a consequence the high rate of sexual re-offending is a serious problem that not only affects the offender and his/her immediate family, but also other vulnerable groups in society. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the factors that contribute to the recidivism of incarcerated sexual offenders. A qualitative research approach was used to purposively select ten incarcerated recidivist sexual offenders. The findings of this study showed that most of the participants grew up in dysfunctional families and experienced challenges such as: substance abuse; violence; low socio-economic status; and unacceptable sexual activities. The challenges reported by the participants confirmed the conditions that contributed towards the chaotic lifestyles of disorganised individuals with inadequate support structures and a proclivity for continued sexual aggression. A stronger presence of prior criminal involvement, pro-offending behaviour, gang associations and substance abuse emerged as factors in their readmission to prison. The participants' adverse developmental experiences, as well as, the traumatic events that they had survived, were present during the initial sexual offence, while factors, such as substance abuse, pro-offending attitudes and deviant subculture involvement, were more prevalent in sexual recidivism. The main outcome of this study revealed that poor attitudes and treatment compliance were less significant as contributing factors to sexual recidivism.
Author Willem J. ClackSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 92 –106 (2015)More Less
This article describes the uniqueness of livestock theft as a rural crime that needs to be attended to in a more specialised manner than other crimes against property in rural areas. Specific livestock theft cases are used to demonstrate by means of environmental criminology theories that livestock theft occurs within a specific rural environment and that generalisation of the crimes is not always possible due to the type of crime that is committed. The events of the crimes create much awareness regarding crime, space and time and the involved social media and other technologies that can be used to detect livestock theft crimes in future. The importance of distinguishing between urban and rural crimes is strongly emphasised, as well as the different principles of Routine Activity Theory, Crime Pattern Theory, Rational Choice Theory and Buffer Zone Theory. It is found that these principles do have an impact on conceptions of how the crime of livestock theft is committed by a commuting style perpetrator. The fact that legislation needs to be adhered to by the public at large to reduce crime is also addressed, as well as the fact that the drafting of legislation needs to be absolutely clear and unambiguous; otherwise it creates confusion for the courts and contributes to offenders not being sentenced in accordance with the law. The findings of this article will, hopefully, provide some guidance to the criminal justice system, not only on how to detect crimes in rural settings, but also on how important the involvement of society is for crime reduction.
A criminological study of the non-compliance with selected licensing conditions by tavern operators in Mankweng LimpopoSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 107 –122 (2015)More Less
Liquor consumption is part of social life. The abuse thereof is a social problem. Taverns play a major role in the supply of liquor in South Africa. To control the activities of licenced taverns and other liquor outlets, the Liquor Act, Act 27 of 1989 was introduced. This study was implemented in Mankweng, 30 km east of Polokwane in the Limpopo Province of South Africa, and is based on a distributed self-administered questionnaire to a sample of tavern owners. The survey set out to measure their compliance with selected sections of the Act. The study found that violations are regular occurrences and the selling of liquor to young people under the age of 18 - the legal age for alcohol consumption in South Africa - and trading beyond prescribed hours are commonplace. Repeat offences occur and respondents stated that they violate the law and are never caught.