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- Volume 28, Issue 3, 2015
Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Volume 28, Issue 3, 2015
Volumes & issues
Volume 28, Issue 3, 2015
Author Anthony MinnaarSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp I –V (2015)More Less
Given modern societies' increased reliance on borderless and decentralised information technologies, cyberspace has been identified as an easy target for organised criminals, criminal hackers (so-called 'crackers'), 'hacktivists', governments themselves or even terrorist networks for the perpetration of a number of wide-ranging illegal activities. Gone are the days when encryption was foolproof, e-commerce was safe, gaming was just for fun, war was fought by actual people, and the Internet was safely in the hands of responsible entities.
Author Gregory BreetzkeSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 1 –15 (2015)More Less
The temporal variation of crime has been a subject of much interest to criminologists, crime analysts, criminal investigators and crime researchers for a number of years. In South Africa, however, studies investigating the temporal variation of crime are in their infancy. Whilst a plethora of studies theorise crime in the country and identify a number of neighbourhood level risk factors for crime, few, if any, are based on spatio-temporal empirical evidence. This study investigates the temporal variations of four categories of crime in Tshwane, South Africa: contact crime, contact-related crime, property crime and crime dependent on police for detection (CHDPD), across four different temporal resolutions: season, month, day, and hour. Crimes across all categories tend to peak at certain times of the day, month and season, most notably in December and on Friday and Saturday evenings. Property crime also exhibits a noticeable increase in the early mornings. The article concludes with implications and policy recommendations.
Vigilantism in South Africa in the pre- and post-1994 periods : causes, similarities and differencesSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 16 –33 (2015)More Less
The end of the Cold War resulted in governments focusing more on the prevention of crime and violence with superpower rivalry no longer obscuring other socio-political issues. Increasing media focus on incidents of vigilantism and the way in which it manifests as mob and related political violence, xenophobia, organised crime and related gang activities, raises the question as to what extent the lack of proper policing is responsible for the occurrence of these phenomena. Some of them are claimed to be crime-combating activities in the absence of proper policing and are regarded as part of alternative ordering structures in South African society with the affected communities in many instances accused of incompetency and corruption against the police by the affected communities. Vigilantism in its many manifestations poses serious problems for policing and democracy in general. This article assesses vigilantism in some of its manifestations as forms of non-state violence, as well as the causes of vigilante activities. The phenomenon of vigilantism in the period prior to 1994 is compared to the post-1994 period in terms of causes/motives, different manifestations, policing, and activities disguised as acts of crime prevention.
Practitioners' perspectives about the successes and challenges in the implementation of the Child Justice ActSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 34 –49 (2015)More Less
The Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development must submit annual reports on the implementation of the Child Justice Act (Act 75 of 2008) to the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Justice and Constitutional Development. The purpose of the reports is to provide Parliament with a holistic overview of the Act's implementation and reflect on successes and challenges experienced with the implementation of the Act. The implementation and monitoring of the Act is dependent on the close collaboration between government Departments, and between government Departments and the non-governmental sector and civil society that are tasked with rendering services to children in conflict with the law. To date, as discussed in this article, the general evaluation of the Act's implementation has been done in what seems to be a disjointed and haphazard manner. Annual reports to Parliament are largely extrapolated from governmental reports and focussed on macro level operational issues. Against this background, the article will present findings from a study that explored practitioners' perceptions about the successes and challenges experienced in the implementation of the Act. Findings from the study highlight the challenges (that are largely not recognised in the annual oversight reports to Parliament) governmental and non-governmental practitioners experience in the rendering of services to children in conflict with the law. This is due to a break down in information flow between micro level practitioners who are directly responsible for delivering services in line with the Act's provisions and macro level governmental structures that are responsible for the oversight of the Act's implementation. The focus of this article will be to explore the value practitioners' experiences can add to the oversight of the Child Justice Act.
A phenomenological description of corrective rape and a new terminological perspective of the phenomenonSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 50 –62 (2015)More Less
Corrective rape is a term used to describe the rape of lesbian women with the intention to 'cure' such raped women by force to change their sexual orientation (Alfred, 2011:1; Mufweba, 2003:1). Mieses (2009:2) notes that gays and lesbians are being raped because they are violating the 'traditional gender presentation' and also challenging the dominant African ideas about gender identity. As a result, straight men sexually and brutally punish those who deviate from the accepted gender identity. Apart from the fact that the crime is in itself different from other rape categories, the authors do not agree with the term currently used in the media and academic writings, namely 'corrective rape'. The use of this term implies that rape has some inherent 'rehabilitative focus'. Although most people condemn this assault on lesbian women, the term itself creates some idea of correction and should not be used at all. The term: 'homophobic rape', instead is proposed.
Author Cecili DoorewaardSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 63 –76 (2015)More Less
Increases in piracy incidents off the coast of Somali were recorded from 2005 up to 2011. But after 2011 there occurred a significant decrease of such incidents. Despite the welcomed decrease, piracy still remains a global threat, and though a great deal of literature has been written on Somali piracy in particular few have attempted to outline the intricacies surrounding maritime piracy from a criminological perspective. The aim of this article is to give an overview of some of the issues that remain a challenge to the effectiveness of preventing maritime piracy, whilst applying a criminological explanation to the onset and continuation of maritime piracy. Some of the problems under discussion include the debate to reach a consensus over defining maritime piracy to the controversy over the payment of ransom to pirates. Although many other issues surrounding maritime piracy exist which may or may not fall beyond the scope of this article, the objective is to advance the debate further and strategical thinking towards maritime piracy prevention.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 77 –91 (2015)More Less
The field of forensic investigation is often confronted with contestations that question whether it can be said to exist or not. These contestations, which frequently emanate from definitional dilemmas associated with the concept 'forensic investigation', are further exacerbated by an existence of the self-proclaimed forensic auditors, forensic accountants, commercial forensic detectives and forensic analysts who continue to sow misunderstanding around the existence or non-existence of forensic investigation fraternity in South Africa. This bifurcate debate is more audible in the commercial offences sphere where there is no agreement on who really investigates cases involving the business processes of the instructing client. The purpose of this article is therefore to dispel myths about the real definition of forensic investigation and to determine its existence in South Africa. In order to achieve this, those purporting to be forensic investigators were selected as research participants and one-on-one interviews were conducted after which the data was qualitatively analysed and triangulated with literature, to arrive at the conclusions. An analysis of the empirical data reveals that the definitional misconceptions about forensic investigation also complicate the realisation of forensic investigation as a discipline and as an existing industry in South Africa. However, through concept analysis and qualitative analysis of data, it would be concluded that forensic investigation does exist as an all-encompassing fraternity that includes accountants, auditors, analysts and detectives as different categories falling under this umbrella industry. As a remedial measure, this article proposes an alternative definition to the existing ones, which will be able to accommodate the processes followed by every practice believed to be having a forensic investigation function within the commercial crime and transgressions terrain.
Source: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 92 –108 (2015)More Less
This article contextualises sector policing as a 'community policing' approach to crime prevention within the participation and partnership debate. Challenges with regards to the implementation of sector policing the past fifteen to twenty years should be prioritised by the South African Police Service (SAPS). Securing commitment of SAPS leadership and grassroots commanders and the mobilisation of SAPS and community-based resources such as Community Police Forums (CPFs) and neighbourhood watches should be re-visited. This should be facilitated within the context of co-producing local meaning-giving spaces for community participation and partnerships with the SAPS. Through co-produced SAPS-community planning regimes and the establishment of context-specific crime prevention frameworks at grassroots, both the SAPS and community stakeholders need to be innovative. Both partners require to synergise; to surpass the current impasse of grassroots distrust, disillusionment and apathy towards the SAPS, while on the other hand absent communities that are losing faith in their ability to drive change, remains a civil society challenge. This article is based on an international literature review; the construction of an analytical linkage between policing and community development principles and strategies; empirical research and practical experience by the authors in the field of community policing based on two case studies in Limpopo and the Western Cape; participation in the establishment and management of CPFs and neighbourhood watches and the training of senior SAPS members during nationally accredited short courses on integrated community development planning and community participation. The article intends to highlight the challenges faced by sector policing via reference to neighbourhood watches. A 'mind shift' is called for among SAPS policy-makers, civil society stakeholders and communities affected by crime. It is the author's contention that through co-production, authentic and empowering community participation and the establishment of grassroots spaces through local partnerships, such as sector policing and neighbourhood watches, that crime can be more effectively addressed in South Africa.
Crime prevention at local level in South Africa : challenges regarding the implementation of community safety forumsSource: Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology 28, pp 109 –127 (2015)More Less
This article investigates the challenges regarding the implementation of crime prevention strategies at a local level in the two provinces of South Africa. It assesses the implementation of Community Safety Forums policy in the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces. The article also examines the differences between policy provisions (rhetoric) and implementation (actualisation) thereof. It further identifies a couple deviations from policy provisions that can negatively affect the implementation of the policy. If these deviations are left unattended, might even result in the policy failing to deliver for what it was designed. Some observed disconnection between policy provisions and implementation that impacted negatively in the process of implementation was that the policy provides that a Member of the Executive Council responsible for policing, in consultation with the Mayor are supposed to establish a Community Safety Forums. This provision was not followed because the initiation and establishment of these forums was done by Department of Community Safety and Liaison. The policy also provides that Community Safety and Liaison must establish an Intergovernmental forum that will facilitate the involvement of different role-players in the implementation of Community Safety Forums and ensure that these forums are implemented successfully. The Community Safety and Liaison did not adhere to this policy provision and such deviation from the policy provision impacted negatively on the implementation because other leading departments such as Department of Co-operative Governance and Traditional Affairs and South African Local Government Association did not participate in the implementation process. The policy also makes a provision for the financing of the implementation of Community Safety Forums. This must be done by both Community Safety and Liaison, as well as municipalities. The implementation of Community Safety Forums were not financed by either of these government institutions hence the forums had no infrastructure and those involved in the implementation were not trained. These disconnections have negative impact on the implementation of this Crime Prevention Policy. Such impact if not attended to might result into the policy failing to achieve its intended aims. The article utilised a sample of 16 participants from the two identified provinces.