Imprisonment has negative consequences. Alternatives to short-term continuous imprisonment (that is under two years) are sought. Within this context, periodical imprisonment, being non-continuous, could play a meaningful role.
Feminism can be broadly defined as a movement striving for equality of men and women in social, economic and political spheres. More specifically, the movement consists of various organisations, liberation groups and ideologies such as socialist feminists, radical feminists, liberal feminists and metaphysical feminism. All these approaches focus their attention on the woman as a victim of male domination in all spheres of life.
Language and society are inextricably related. Not only are the values and customs of a society reflected in its language, but the language itself can also be instrumental in creating social identity and group cohesion and in giving meaning to social realities.
In 1985 Unisa's Institute for Criminology received a generous research grant from the Human Sciences Research Council enabling a team of research officers to look into the frequency and impact of housebreaking in Mamelodi.
A democracy is heavily dependent upon its police to maintain the degree of order that makes a free society possible. It looks to its police to facilitate those aspects vital to a democratic way of life: to prevent people from preying on one another, to provide a sense of security to resolve conflicts and to protect free elections, freedom of assembly and freedom of movement.
This discussion deals with the issue of discriminatory policing. The accusation that the police act in a discriminatory way means that there are doubts as to whether the principles of equality before the law, judicial impartiality, fairness and reasonableness are upheld in the policing process.
It has frequently been stated that the female offender was consistently ignored in the literature until recently. The position is slowly changing, but many of the theoretical assumptions about the female's involvement in crime are still based on false pseudoscientific patina that cherishes myths about women.
Policing, as a community service, places exceptionally high demands on members of the force. Since policing must keep pace with social change, the demands increase daily. Internally the police are confronted with a situation where a large number of members quit the force daily. As a result of the shortage of manpower, it becomes even more difficult to maintain law and order.
Recent literature on prison labour in the Western world reflects a particular interest in the etablishment of industries within prison walls. Most developments in this field are found in the United States of America. As states and provinces function largely independently in this country, and certain other countries, little uniformity can be discerned in the way in which labour systems are controlled or managed.