oa Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology - Restitution instead of punishment - orientation of crime prevention and criminal justice in the context of development

Volume 4, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 1012-8093



According to the classical school of criminology, which emerged around the middle of the eighteenth century, crime was the result of rational considerations on the part of the offender, who was considered to possess a free will. Thus the classical school supported penal sanctions oriented to the extent of the individual's culpability as a response to criminality.

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