Corporate crime has become prominent in South Africa because of recent wide media coverage. Lack of research activity in this country (and many other countries) is noted. Clinard and Yeager (Hagan 1990:375) presented the first large-scale, comprehensive investigation on corporate crime (1979-1980). They conducted a systematic analysis of administrative, civil and criminal actions against 477 of the largest manufacturing corporations in the United States during 1975-76.
Among numerous difficult questions that arise almost daily in a changing South Africa, that of political violence is high on the agenda. The many debates in search of feasible democratic, political and economic structures are regularly overshadowed by the continuing reality of political violence.
In South Africa, as in most other countries, there is a lack of information on the victims of murder. Human rights organisations traditionally focus on the rights and treatment of the murderer, emphasising the right to life for all. Emotional accounts of the cruelty to and suffering of convicted killers sentenced to death are frequently given.
From the original research focus in victimisation studies - on the identification of victims in order to calculate the 'true rate of victimisation', fear of crime has emerged as a significant criminological issue over the past two decades.
It has been traditionally assumed that substance abuse is related to physically aggressive behaviour (Leonard et aI 1985). Several studies, attempt to show a relationship between substance abuse and aggressive crimes such as homicide, attempted homicide, assault and rape.
Van Heerden (1986:8) contends that the concept social order is embodied in the (inherent) pursuit and task of any society, namely orderly and secure coexistence. Each community, whether primitive or extremely complex in nature, consequently consists of interdependent individuals, united because of collective sentiments and interests, who cooperate for the purpose of mutual benefits and survival.
Research on this topic was initially undertaken by Van Heerden (1974). Several relationship studies emerged from this initial research, which looked into the external image of the police, and society's expectations of the police role.
The police represent perhaps the most visible and active institution of formal social control in modern society. Throughout the past decades, increasing urbanisation and heterogeneity have contributed to significant increases in the crime rates and thrust the police into the centre of the public arena where their vital significance and importance cannot be ignored.
The ever-increasing crime situation in our country can be contributed partly to our current economical situation, the massive increase in the population, insufficient housing, poverty and, many other aspects of our daily lifes. This is especially true where economic and property orientated crimes are concerned.
Drug-related child abuse refers to the physical, sexual and/or emotional abuse, and/or the emotional deprivation, neglect or inadequate care by the drug dependent parent or parents, which results in the physical damage or injury, mental damage or death of the abused child (Ovens 1992: 15).