For the last number of years South Africa has been a country in turmoil which has affected all levels of society - be it on a social, political or economic level. A level on which most South Africans are very much affected - which is also costing the country dearly in terms of loss of life and dignity - is that of violent crime. People, regardless of race, colour, creed or age, are daily being killed, maimed, sexually abused or 'spiritually murdered'.
Marital rape has only recently been recognised as a problem serious enough to merit scientific investigation and societal concern. The attention that has been given to the subject has focused almost entirely on important court cases such as those of John Rideout and James Chretien in the United States of America.
During 1988 sexual molestation was brought to the attention of the public by the unveiling of its prevalence and extent by the media and organisations involved. In response police protection units were established in various centres not only to prevent molestation, but also to reveal the identity of those guilty of such acts.
The causes of juvenile delinquency have posed a fundamental question to criminologists for ages. This is also the case with the causes of crime. The prevention of juvenile delinquency cannot be effective unless it is based on a thorough study of the causes of delinquency. The complete etiology of juvenile delinquency should be addressed.
While research evidence regarding wife abuse over the past two decades has been accumulating, very little research has been done and very little concern expressed by both researchers and professionals about the impact of witnessing domestic violence upon children. Apart from the fact that the dysfunctional pattern of violent marriages impairs the ability of parents to meet the developmental and emotional needs of children, these children were otherwise overlooked or misunderstood by service providers and researchers alike.
Drug abuse is a problem faced by many Western societies. Another social deviance is that of child abuse. The possible relationship between these two issues is examined by looking at the effect of psychoactive substances on the user, the user's social structure and social processes.
Historically, offenders have generally been treated or housed in closed facilities. In the past two decades there has been a shift in emphasis in most countries in the Western world from treating offenders mainly in prisons to involving communities in the correction process.
Since the beginning of time, man's curiosity has been a part of his very humanness. Over the centuries the search for knowledge may be argued to have formed an inherent part of human nature. From birth the human animal carries an inborn urge for exploration which presents itself through a variety of concepts. These concepts - identifiable both in childhood and adulthood - have names such as: intelligence, mischievousness, naughtiness, troublesomeness, ferreter, explorer, student, and finally researcher.
Sexual molestation is a topic which tends to elicit an immediate reaction from the general public as well as professionals. People tend to be very sympathetic towards the victim and more aggressive towards the perpetrator. Although everybody tends to show interest in sexual abuse, more can be done to protect these children and to help them work through the emotional damage.
Whenever a child or juvenile is sexually abused, some of his personal rights (eg his right to bodily integrity, dignity or privacy) are infringed. The situation of the child/juvenile worsens when he is subjected to the substantial trauma of being called upon to give evidence in a criminal court.
To raise a charge against another for something which is not owed is an age-old problem. In today's practice, the following is the twofold situation.To raise a charge against another for something which is not owed is an age-old problem. Second, there is a sending of an account to someone not known to the sender, and to whom nothing has or will be supplied.