The term recidivism refers to a practical distinction which is made between offenders and is furthermore used to explain, justify and operationalise strutural conditions and measure deemed necessary to deal with recidivists in the criminal justice system. This in turn has bearing on the objectives with which offenders associated with recidivism are punished.
Mickolus (1976:1309-1325) distinguishes two competing approaches to negotiation, which he labels the 'no ransom' and 'flexible response' positions. During a terrorist incident, bargaining and negotiation cannot take into account potential differences in terrorists and terrorist demands. Government responsibility for its citizens, even for its political prisoners, is another rationale behind a 'no negotiation with terrorists' policy. 'Flexible response', on the other hand, implies that terrorists 'rarely double cross bargainers by increasing their demands, and rarely kill hostages without provocation'.
According to Snyman (1989:421) the definition of murder is 'the unlawful and intentional causing of the death of another human being'. Toch (1979:309) gives some criminological background to murder and quotes Megargee's classification of murderous behaviour that consists of two kinds, namely overcontrolled and undercontrolled.
Violence is a phenomenon that has existed throughout time and all over the world. South Africa is no exception and since the decision was taken to move towards a democracy, violence has escalated to such an extent that today South Africa is regarded as one of the most violent countries in the world.
The concept 'anti-gay violence' can be defined as the assault of a homosexual or heterosexual merely because the person is perceived as having a homosexual orientation (Harry, 1982: 549). Violence of this nature towards gay males and females is currently regarded by researchers as an increasing social problem that merits intensive investigation.
Modern society uses technical equipment in its fight against crime. Computers, detection systems, lights, closed circuit television and the like are used together with mechanical and civil engineering paraphernalia and techniques to form a first line of defence against crime.
Killing, maiming and wilful destruction of property are as old as humanity. They are enmeshed in man's aggressiveness and violent behaviour as he interacts with other humans on an interpersonal and group level. While much of the daily violence like rape, assault, murder and robbery is perpetrated by individual criminals, some of it, like taxi wars, and clashes between rival political groups, is collective.