Outside supervision can be placed somewhere between individual actions of persons or associations in the private sphere and organisations and institutions constituted by the state in the public sphere. It is where everyday life is experienced, discussed, comprehended, contested and reproduced - a terrain where state and civil society meet and cooperate.
Of late, professionalisation, as an academic metaphor, has been (again) pursued vigorously. Much emphasis is placed on the role of qualifications in this quest (vide Security Focus vol 12(6), (7) & (12). The following review takes a theoretical approach to the question of the professionalisation of the security industry.
A neglected aspect of the South African criminal justice system is the recognition of the impact of crime on the victims. In South Africa victims of crime can still be considered to be the 'forgotten persons' of the criminal justice system.
It is no secret that attacks on the police have been one of the most shattering crime experiences during the last two years in the Republic of South Africa. Woodgate (1994:3) noted that there were 4 165 incidents of unrest-related violence against the 90 000-strong police force of 1992; 35 per cent of these occurred in the Witwatersrand area.
This article deals first with a juvenile's share in his own education, which is called identifidation. This means that a juvenile has a share in the education which he receives within the family context and thus also in his becoming an adult.
A legal presumption, broadly speaking, may be descriptionbed as one of the four ways in which facts can be proved without evidence (as a matter of interest, the other three are formal admissions, judicial notice and incriminating statements made by an accused during explanation of plea). A presumption is thus the supposition made by a court of law which is usually based on the strength qf evidence which put the presumption into operation.
There is a worldwide tendency to ban corporal punishment in schools. Research has shown that corporal punishment in schools is undesirable and should be abolished. At present, corporal punishment is still allowed in South African schools to maintain order and discipline. According to law, corporal punishment should, however, be moderate and reasonable.
In 1912 in the Case of Wittaker & Morant vs Roos & Bateman (1912 AD 92 at 122), his Lordship Mr Justice Innes said that: True, the plaintiffs' freedom has been impaired by the legal process of imprisonment; but they were entitled to demand respect for what remained. The fact that their liberty had been legally curtailed could have no excuse for a further illegal encroachment upon it.
Crime prevention is an interdisciplinary field of study which cannot be studied in isolation. The multi-factoral approach to the causation of crime should also be applied in the study of the prevention of crime.
As scientific concepts intelligence and crime are analogous to temperature and other scientific concepts. The difficulties in measuring them are no different from those to which the measurement of temperature and other scientific concepts give rise. Over the years the concepts of intelligence and crime have been highly controversial and a great deal of research has been conducted in their respective fields.