Crime Research in South Africa - Volume 1, Issue 1, 2000
Volume 1, Issue 1, 2000
The Bill of Rights in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and its application within the criminal justice systemAuthor David KgosimoreSource: Crime Research in South Africa 1, pp 1 –10 (2000)More Less
The intention of this article is to gain familiarity with the phenomenon of victim rights. This is to be attained by reviewing the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, (Act 108 of 1996) especially Chapter 2, which deals with Human Rights and its operation within the criminal justice system. In the process, the researcher will strive to confirm the viewpoint held by Nelken (1994:78) that, while the broader notion of human rights was central in the phase of resistance against apartheid, these norms are not easily translatable during social reconstruction where the narrow notion of human rights seems to work better.
Author Karen OlivierSource: Crime Research in South Africa 1, pp 1 –10 (2000)More Less
It is postulated that juvenile violence is one of the biggest problems facing societies in the new millennium. Contributing factors to the problem of juvenile violence, and relating to this paper, include the violence that children are watching on television, at the movies, the music they are listening to, unrestricted use of the Internet, violent video games and violent coin-up games [Chilton:1997]. A recent statement, based on 30 years of research, from four national American health organizations namely American Medical Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Psychological Association and American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, concluded that a direct link does exist between violence in the media and violence by children (Vermaakgeweld lei tot meer aggressie 2000:3). In this paper the emphasis will fall on violent Internet games, as a form of electronic mass media, and the influence thereof on children and juveniles.
Author Carina CoetzerSource: Crime Research in South Africa 1, pp 1 –11 (2000)More Less
In this section of research, crime prevention at business complexes was examined and Oscar Newman's defensible space theory was used in the analysis. Centurion Centre, Centurion was chosen as a case study because it has an open plan design. This has the effect that some parts of the centre cannot be closed at night. Centurion Centre was described in terms of the defensible space mechanisms. A crime prevention model was drawn up for Centurion Centre and recommendations were made regarding the security of future designs for business complexes. This field of study and approach to crime prevention is, however, very new in South Africa and suggestions for more research have been made.
In this article all the findings of this research will be discussed. The findings are used as basis for recommendations and suggestions for further research possibilities.
Author Anthony MinnaarSource: Crime Research in South Africa 1, pp 1 –16 (2000)More Less
In trying to formulate protection measures and preventative strategies for the murder of police officers the profiling of the murderers provides just one of the tools which can be of assistance to the authorities. This article looks at the formulation of a profile for so-called 'cop killers' in the South African situation. In building such a profile enables pointers to be given of what kind of training and which specific measures should be implemented to provide a more secure working environment for police officers as they go about their daily work of fighting and combating crime in South Africa. This article is based on individual interviews undertaken in a number of prisons in Gauteng during January and February 2000 of offenders who have perpetrated attacks on or murdered police officials and who were willing to be interviewed.
Author Herman ConradieSource: Crime Research in South Africa 1, pp 1 –24 (2000)More Less
Murdering of police officials in South Africa have become endemic during the nineties. Each year since 1993 more than 200 killing occurred. This is in sharp contrast with the average of 67 murders of police officials in the United States of America, calculated over a period of 50 years, starting from 1945 through 1994 (Chapman 1998:3). Furthermore, the continuous killing of police officials since the inauguration of the democratic political dispensation in South Africa, did not make sense at all. Before the new democratic dispensation one could have argued, as many did, that the police officials are the strong arm of the oppressive government. One has to agree with Chapman's (1998: 73) statement that attacks on police officials are in fact attacks on the governmental authority because they are the visible and accessible representatives of the government. During September 1999, the then Minister of Safety and Security, then Sydney Mufamdi, appointed a multi-disciplinary research team to conduct research regarding these killings. This report reflects on those findings referring to the victims who have survived these attacks.
Author Toffie Van VuurenSource: Crime Research in South Africa 1, pp 1 –11 (2000)More Less
South Africans have reached the point where they are fed up with the crime situation in our country. Tony Leon describe it best by referring to the situation as "gatvol vir misdaad". There is a tendency amongst South Africans to try and to restore order themselves. In doing so, they will have to take cognizance of the fact they the law limits their efforts to do so. Although we all feel that we would like to support Mapogo Amatamaga - we have to realize that we are forbidden by law to go beyond the parameters of the law.
By implication, this topic deals with the topic of self policing. I am not a lawyer - but a policing scientist and this paper will focus on a policing perspective on this issue. Readers involved in the legal fraternity must bear with me - let us share some ideas about my interpretation of the practical realities regarding the rights and limitations for concerned citizens.
What readers may read, may not sound very attractive to some people who are eager to learn more about the law which should enable them to make their respective surrounding a safer place. As far as safety and security issues are concerned, all of us must realize one thing - the situation in South Africa is not what we would like it to be. Fact of the matter is we inherited the situations and the question is now what can one do to improve our own safety. Everybody must understand that in order to help to protect themselves, they will have to work within the parameters of the law.
Author Chris De KockSource: Crime Research in South Africa 1, pp 1 –12 (2000)More Less
In this report, serious crime ratios for 1999 will be compared with those for 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1998 respectively in order to analyse whether any improvement in the South African crime situation can be discerned up to the end of 1999 or whether the situation is stabilizing or deteriorating.
Author M.R. MakhanyaSource: Crime Research in South Africa 1, pp 1 –4 (2000)More Less
We live at a time where social problems confront us everywhere. Most sociologists consider a social problem to be an alleged situation that is incompatible with the values of a significant number of people who agree that action or remedy is needed to alter the situation (Lauer 1992; Horton et al 1994; Mooney et al 2000). Jamrozik and Nocella (1998:1) capture the essence of social problem when they point out that, "the term 'social problem' applies to social conditions, processes, societal arrangements or attitudes that are commonly perceived to be undesirable, negative, and threatening certain values or interests such as social cohesion, maintenance of law and order, moral standards, stability of social institutions, economic prosperity or individual freedoms". A social problem comprises the following aspects: a social problem becomes a social problem only when it is publicly perceived as one; a social problem involves a gap between social ideals and social realities; a social problem must be perceived as a problem by a significant number of the population; and, for a social problem to be regarded as such, a social condition must be considered capable of solution, as Horton et al (1994:2) put it, "through collective social action".