Crime Research in South Africa - Volume 2, Issue 1, 2001
Volume 2, Issue 1, 2001
Author Herman ConradieSource: Crime Research in South Africa 2, pp 1 –13 (2001)More Less
For the purposes of the research, all police officials who have survived an attack between 1996 and 1999 in the Western Cape, Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng,, were summoned to voluntary complete the questionnaire. The final result was a twenty percent response rate. KwaZulu-Natal completed 165, Gauteng 145, Western Cape 138 and the Eastern Cape completed 68 questionnaires. Only 478 of the 517 could be utilized for the final result. There were 39 questionnaires which could not be used for different reasons, mainly because they were not completed in full.
This research found that the attackers were more active since 1998. They tend to attack a little bit more during during the months of October. They prefer to attack on Friday and Saturday between 20:00 and 23:59, and they concentrate more in KwaZulu Natal and Gauteng Provinces. The attackers are on foot or using public transport. They shoot and stab their victims. They also use physical force to attack. They shoot, stab and use force more on male than on female police officials. The younger the attackers, the more they shoot, stab and use physical force. Usually they utilize handguns when executing the attacks. They ambush the police officials. They execute the majority of their attacks against police officials who are on duty. When the police are directly interacting with the public, that is when they attack, namely when they attend a complaint, when patrolling or investigating a crime. The attackers rob the male victims more times of their fire arms than the females.
It is recommended that the reasons why the attacks seem to be increasing, should be researched further. The way in which policing services are rendered during week-ends should be re-visited to prevent attacks. The reasons for more attacks in KwaZulu Natal and Gauteng should be researched further. All the elements of the modus operandi should be used to develop prevention strategies.
Childhood forcible sexual abuse and victim-perpetrator relationship among a sample of secondary school students in the Northern Province (South Africa)Author S.N. MaduSource: Crime Research in South Africa 2, pp 1 –13 (2001)More Less
Objective : This is an investigation into the prevalence and patterns of childhood forcible sexual abuse and victim-perpetrator relationship among secondary school students in the Northern Province (South Africa).
Method : 414 secondary school students in standard 9 and 10 in 3 secondary schools filled in a retrospective self-rating questionnaire in a classroom setting. The questionnaire asked for the demographic variables of the subjects, (physical contact forms of) sexual experiences of participants before the age of 17 years where the perpetrator used physical force to intimidate and dominate the victim or to achieve sexual gratification, and the victim-perpetrator relationship.
Result : It shows an overall prevalence rate for childhood forcible sexual abuse to be 16.4%; 8.8% for males, 15.7% for females. 9.9% were kissed sexually by force, 6.8% were touched sexually by force, 6.1% were victims of oral/anal/vaginal intercourse using force. The majority of the perpetrators were acquaintances or relatives of the victims.
Conclusion : The author pointed out some possible health and behavioural implications of forcible sexual abuse for the victims, and call for more research in the area of forcible sexual abuse in the Province, more publicity of the possible situation of raped or forcibly sexually abused children, and for more campaigns against childhood forcible sexual abuse and sexual abuse in general in the Province.
Source: Crime Research in South Africa 2, pp 1 –19 (2001)More Less
The South African Police Services were institutionalised on 1 April 1913. For the next eighty years, the South African Police played a primary role in upholding apartheid (Fourie 1998:166). The Police became a symbol of oppression for the greater part of the community as the strategy of the police was characterised by a strong emphasis on the military style of policing (Stevens & Yach 1995:2). New reforms, which had a major influence on the police, were introduced in the early 1990's. The outcome of the Democratic elections of 27 April 1994, created a demand for fundamental reassessment of policing in South Africa. This resulted in removing the top structure of the "deadwood" which meant replacing officials who resisted reform, with more enlightened managers. The next major reform was to create a police service instead of a police force (Fourie 1998:168).
Forensic Criminology and Psychophysiology : truth verification tools, with a special study of Truster ProAuthor Guy Van DammeSource: Crime Research in South Africa 2, pp 1 –22 (2001)More Less
In 1997 Prof. A. Padayachee, requested the development of a module for Forensic Criminology for the University of Durban Westville, one particular chapter being "Investigative tools", meaning all Truth Verification techniques. As a long practising polygraph operator, qualified in forensic psychophysiology in 1982, I was asked by Trustech Israel, to analyse their latest product, the Truster Pro.
It soon became clear that this knowledge should not be restricted to the academic world but be made available to the real practitioners in the field. To share my knowledge of Truth Verification tools and the Truster Pro in particular we composed this article. I hope you enjoy it.
This paper is directed at people involved, or merely interested, in the fight of crime. The purpose is to provide or to improve the basic knowledge of "Truth Verification" needed by any investigator.
Author J.J. NeserSource: Crime Research in South Africa 2, pp 1 –9 (2001)More Less
In the 1950s the psychologist, Eglash, (Van Ness & Strong 1997:28) spoke of the concepts "creative restitution" and the "second mile", about healing and not depending only on the punishment of offenders. A decade later Schafer (Schmalleger 1996:298) introduced the paradigm of restitution of victims. Although the term "restorative justice" is often attributed to modern authors like Barnett (1997:279), it is not a new concept or a new "move" in the history of reactions to crime. In many respects, the so-called "new" paradigm of restorative justice represents a return to traditional responses to crime that had victim reparation as a basic premise.