Crime Research in South Africa - Volume 5, Issue 1, 2003
Volume 5, Issue 1, 2003
Author Herman ConradieSource: Crime Research in South Africa 5, pp 1 –8 (2003)More Less
Children constitute the most vulnerable group in contemporary democratic South African society. On 22nd September 2002 Keppler (2002:5) reported that there were about 173 000 cases relating to child abuse on the roles of South African courts. One week later, on 29th September 2002, Smith (2002:11) reported findings of the Ciet study, indicating that from a group of 9000 children one in four reported that they believe condoms cannot prevent AIDS/HIV-infection. About 14 percent of these young people believed that sex with a virgin is a cure for HIV/AIDS - and one-third of them were convinced that they have had AIDS already during the time of the research. Asked about the prevalence of sexual abuse in Gauteng during the Ciet Africa study (South African Human Rights Commission 2002:8-9) 77 percent of the respondents said sexual violence is common or very common. Twenty percent of the female and 13 percent of the male respondents under 18 years of age reported suffering from some form of sexual violence. Sexual relationships are arguably the most complicated humans can engage one another. Adults fail in these relationships - even under normal circumstances. How much more will the negative impact be on children when their first experiences with their sexuality are negative ones.
Source: Crime Research in South Africa 5, pp 1 –6 (2003)More Less
Duties of the South African Police Services (SAPS), as espoused in section 205(3) of the Constitution Act 108 of 1996, include to 'prevent, combat and investigate crime, to maintain public order, to protect and secure the inhabitants of the Republic and their property, and to uphold the law'. In terms of section 38 of the Criminal Procedure Act (CPA) 51 of 1977 arrest is one the SAPS' modus operandi in the prosecution of its crime prevention or combat duties. The million-dollar question has always been, and still is, whether it is justifiable and constitutional to the use of force, in particular deadly force, in order to secure the arrest of a person or to control and/or prevent crime. The question is more pressing particularly that section 11 of the Constitution guarantees everyone the right to life, even those who find themselves on the wrong side of the law (S v Makwanyane 1995 (3) SA 391 (CC); 1995 (2) SACR 1 (CC). It is therefore incumbent on the SAPS to respect the Constitutional rights of all men to liberty, equality and justice.
Source: Crime Research in South Africa 5, pp 1 –13 (2003)More Less
Peer victimisation among learners is not new. Most adults can remember incidents of bullying in which they were the bullies or intended victims. In fact, the common perception has been that bullying is a relatively normal and harmless experience most learners go through. Bullying has only received research attention since the early seventies when a Norwegian researcher, Olweus, began to study this phenomenon. His book, Aggression in the schools - bullies and whipping boys (1978), is still considered the first scientific study of peer victimisation. Although the literature on bullying has grown significantly since the 1980s, little research has been published in this area from a South African perspective.
Peer victimisation in schools : predisposition to, reasons for and measures against this prevalent phenomenonSource: Crime Research in South Africa 5, pp 1 –15 (2003)More Less
Peer victimisation is a form of harassment and anti-social behaviour which prevails in all segments of the school community. Bullying can take many forms: physical, emotional, verbal or a combination of these. It may involve one child bullying another, a group of children against a single child or groups against other groups.
Source: Crime Research in South Africa 5, pp 1 –12 (2003)More Less
The school plays a central role in a child's socialisation and it is critical that schools offer a safe environment in which learning and growth can take place. Violence "contaminates" the school environment and jeopardises the educational process. Crime and violence in schools are therefore matters of significant public concern. Although the perception of risk is often greater than the reality, many schools face serious problems. It is important to understand these problems so that effective strategies can be developed to prevent school violence and increase school safety.