oa CSIR Science Scope - The graphical /pictorial description of wicked problems : graphical modelling

Volume 2, Issue 4
  • ISSN :



The distinction between wicked, ill-structured or messy problems and the so-called tame problems is descriptionbed in various ways in the literature; but the graphical distinction captured by Schon in his extended metaphor is illuminating, contrasting the 'high ground' where problems are of great technical interest but of limited social importance, with the 'swamp' where messy and confusing problems defy technical solution.

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