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- Volume 13, Issue 2, 1999
South African Journal of Cultural History - Volume 13, Issue 2, 1999
Volumes & issues
Volume 13, Issue 2, 1999
Author Marianna S. BotesSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 13, pp 1 –19 (1999)More Less
The Fort Drury research project began when two of Bloemfontein's 70 year old landmarks, namely Fort Drury Mansions and King's Court, were demolished in favour of four new office buildings. The National Monuments Council gave permission for the two apartment buildings to be demolished on condition that an archaeologist be appointed to search for any remains of the city's first fort, Fort Drury, which was built on this site in 1846. The archaeologist concerned asked the present author to undertake the archival research of the site and its buildings. In April 1846 Major H.D. Warden established a British military post on the farm 'Bloem Fontein' and a simple fort, resembling a blockhouse, was built from stones and clay on the hill just north of the perennial spring to serve as protection for the farm's only water source. By 1861 all that remained of Fort Drury were some stone walls. Because of many problems, the Fort Drury archaeological project cannot be referred to as an ideal historical excavation project. Actually it was more a case of rescue archaeology. Despite the fact that detailed excavations were undertaken no trace of the remains of Fort Drury could be found. Historical material for example, pieces of 19th and 20th century porcelain, fragments of clay pipes, glass and bones were however found while the archival research brought some interesting and mainly unknown facts to light. This article deals with the search for Fort Drury and the results of the historical and archaeological investigation.
Source: South African Journal of Cultural History 13, pp 20 –38 (1999)More Less
The life history of Lourens Abraham Erasmus (1780-1849) is given. He is one of the few boers who trekked with an ox wagen and his household and cattle right through South Africa. Born near Cape Town he first trekked through the Cape Province as farming conditions demanded. With the Great Trek he moved through the Transoranje and the Transvaal to find his last resting place in Zoutpansbergdorp. To trace the trek of one person is made possible by research in the archives of our country. In the Cape Colony the Field Comets had to compile Citizen Rolls annually to show who stayed where and what the taxable assets were. Information is also obtained from the marriage and baptism registers of the churches and from local authority records. With the Great Trek the appointed magistrates had to record the applications for farms along the routes in the Potgieter I and Potgieter II registers now stored in the Transvaal Archives in Pretoria. Some estate files have been preserved in the archives. Thus the contribution of one boer trekker to the opening up of the interior of South Africa for civilization could be traced. Reference is made to the unsympathetic Cape Government, the danger of wild animals, plundering and murder by indigenous tribes and subsequent punitive expeditions. On the available land-maps the resting places of this trek could be traced and shown.
Source: South African Journal of Cultural History 13, pp 39 –55 (1999)More Less
Lord Roberts, who was the British commander-in-chief in the field in South Africa from January to November 1900, believed that the war would end once he had captured the capital cities of the two Boer republics. However, long before he handed over the supreme command to Lord Kitchener in November 1900, it was already clear that the Boers were determined to continue their struggle by means of guerrilla warfare after the fall of their capitals. Consequently the war escalated geographically, the British supply lines were threatened and sometimes cut, and completely new demands were made on the conventionally-trained British soldiers. In an effort to corner the Boer commandos, the British in due course built some 8 000 blockhouses of various sizes over the length and breadth of the war zone. These blockhouses were manned by about 85 000 soldiers, including about 25 000 black and coloured blockhouse guards. In this article life in the blockhouses is described and evaluated. Attention is paid to the composition of the blockhouse garrisons, arrangements in the blockhouses, the provision of water and food, the daily routine, relaxation, as well as other aspects of life in the blockhouses.
Author Robert A. LaingSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 13, pp 56 –82 (1999)More Less
This article attempts to establish the extent of the contributions of the various 20th century heraldic writers to the mythology surrounding the perception of heraldry. The term 'heraldist' is used to describe these heraldry hobbyists. The majority of the local heraldists were enthusiastic amateurs who dabbled in heraldry and used coats of arms to illustrate works that were predominantly genealogical in nature. It will be shown that there is a process of gradual accretion that occurs over time as heraldists build on the work of their predecessors. The article will attempt to identify the 'source' material used by the various heraldists so as to assess the validity of the inferences they have made. There seems a strong possibility that the false and generally misleading statements that characterise the literature of heraldry in South Africa stems from a lack of formal training on the part of the heraldists.
Die Staatartilleriekaserne (Departement Publieken Werken 1887-1889) en die militêre Klubgebou (Public Works Department 1901-1910): ? vergelykende argitektoniese studieAuthor D.** Minnaar, Enla* & HolmSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 13, pp 83 –93 (1999)More Less
The Departement Publieke Werken of the South African Republic and the Public Works Department (PWD) of the Transvaal Colony are compared with respect to intent, personalities, methods/procedures and architectural result. The method of comparison comprises extant documentation as well as existing buildings. It appears that the Publieke Werken had a cultural mission that went beyond satisfying functional requirements of state accommodation; the latter being the main scope of the PWD. As regards personalities, Wierda was head-hunted in the Netherlands, whereas the PWD appointed colonial officers, resourcing work of architectural significance to private practitioners. The methods/procedures of the Publieke Werken were akin to the European individualistic studio with an artistic leader, while the PWD reflected the contemporary industrial production, based on standardisation and repetition. This lead to the Publieke Werken to produce contextualised buildings characterized by concatenation, enfilade and hierarchy, while the contrasting PWD produced buildings less contextualised and conceived in a mechano-like mode, ""breaking"" the monotony by selfconscious interventions.
Exhumation and analysis of the remains of a black native participant in the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), KwaZulu-NatalAuthor M.** Nienaber, W.C.* & SteynSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 13, pp 94 –110 (1999)More Less
Human remains and cultural objects were found in a hole dug by farm labourers in a mealie field on the farm Lynnwood in the Dundee district of KwaZulu-Natal. The remains and cultural materials were excavated archaeologically. The skeletal remains were studied on site before being taken away for reinterment. The location of the remains within the grave, and the manner in which the skeletal remains were found, suggest that the individual was possibly buried in a niche grave. Morphological features, such as the everted gonial angles of the mandible and the square chin, indicate a male individual. A tentative age of 30-40 years old is suggested on the grounds of tooth wear. Even though, due to poor preservation, few cranial measurements were possible, the degree of prognathism suggested an individual of South African Negroid descent. A Penrose analysis of the measurements of the posterior teeth of the Lynnwood skull, those of members of the South African Negroid Population, some South African whites and modem British individuals was conducted. As regards both the mandible and the maxilla the teeth of the Lynnwood skull were assessed to be closest to those of the South African Negroid population. Enamel hypoplasia was observed on the teeth indicating dietary stress or acute infection which occurred between 0.8 and 2.1 years of age. Lesions that could indicate a gunshot wound were observed in the right frontoparietal area. Cultural materials found in the grave suggest a manner of dress similar to that worn by black native people during the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902. Black native people played an active role in this war and it is proposed that the excavated individual was employed by the British military in an unknown capacity.
Author Hannes RaathSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 13, pp 112 –125 (1999)More Less
The ships Nieuwe-Haerlem, Oliphant and Schiedam departed on 16 January 1647 as followers of the home-bound fleet from Batavia to patria. On 25 March 1647, the Nieuwe-Haerlem sailed into Table Bay where it stranded. An earthen entrenchment, temporary dwellings and storage places were erected. Junior merchant Leendert Janszen and sixty men remained behind to bring as much as possible of the ship's cargo to safety. In March 1648 the crew and cargo went on board a home-bound fleet. Jan van Riebeeck, his wife Maria and their son Lambertus, as well as two cousins of whom Van Riebeeck was guardian, initially stayed on board the Drommedaris after their arrival in Table Bay in April 1652. On 24 April they went ashore and stayed in a temporary wooden tent. The rest of the people lived in tents made from old canvas. After the completion of the dwellings in the Fort de Goede Hoope on 3 August 1652, everyone moved to these premises. This article is an attempt to reconstruct the temporary dwellings from written and pictorial sources.
Author Floris J.G. Van der MerweSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 13, pp 126 –137 (1999)More Less
Some 17 303 South African prisoners-of-war of all races were incarcerated during the war. The largest contingents of South African prisoners were taken in Libya; at Sidi Rezegb (3000) in November 1941 and at Tobruk (10 722) in June 1942. These men were kept in temporary camps (called cages) in North Africa, before they were transported to camps in Italy. When Italy capitulated in September 1943, they were moved to camps in Germany. Thrown together in the camps the various nationalities introduced one another to lesser known traditional sports, volleyball being an example. This was a new sport for the South Africans and they competed keenly. The prisoners belonging to the British Dominions demonstrated cricket, rugby, soccer and Australian Rules football, while North American prisoners introduced American football, baseball, softball, and as mentioned, volleyball. Several other sports were also demonstrated and in some cases even played by prisoners from countries where the relevant sport was not traditional. Many South Africans participated in sport and games for the first time. In some camps sport was played six days a week and it was not limited only to compounds playing each other, but also took place at international level, for the days were long and boredom was one of the greatest enemies of all prisoners. The POWs also needed sporting activities to recreate some of the structures of their everyday home lives and to cover any escape activities that may have been taking place. Sport, therefore, played a major role in maintaining the sanity and health of the prisoners.
Author Anna C. Van WykSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 13, pp 138 –152 (1999)More Less
Although a great number of foreigners fought on the Boer side, little is known about the role Jews played during the Anglo-Boer War. The aim of this article is primarily to highlight the situation Jews in South Africa found themselves in at the time, and the dilemma they were confronted with: namely either to be loyal to the British Empire or alternatively to be loyal to their adopted country. Certain case studies are highlighted where Jews fought bravely as ""Boere-Jode"" in the fight for freedom of the republics, and distinguished themselves as Boer soldiers in an exceptional way.
Die Krugerhuisversameling van Boergesinde musiek deur buitelandse komponiste, geskryf tydens die Anglo-Boereoorlog (1899-1902)Author G.C.** Watt, M.C.* & OlivierSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 13, pp 153 –172 (1999)More Less
Drastic events in the history of a country or a nation often find expression in a variety of art works. Meaningful music is also frequently written during or after wars. With the commencement of the centenary celebrations of the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) in 1999, various aspects of this war will be highlighted anew. The Kruger House Collection of pro-Boer music is a striking example of the creative output in the sphere of music, which illustrates some of the world-wide sympathy with the Afrikaner's struggle for freedom against Britain during the Anglo-Boer War. This article presents a survey of these pro-Boer compositions by foreigners in the Kruger House Collection.