Legislation was promulgated in 1836 to allow for the creation of Municipal Boards in towns and villages in the Cape Colony. Ever since then the role played by municipal institutions regarding the formulation and implementation of town planning regulations as well as the supply of services has had a major impact on the built environment of their individual towns. In this article the author investigates this role by focusing on the small town of Uitenhage as an example. The many problems and challenges that faced such institutions are investigated and the success (and failures) in this regard are discussed.
Christian National Education schools were established in the Orange River Colony in May 1904 as a reaction to the education policy of the colonial government. Rev P.S. van Heerden and General P.H. Kritzinger were delegated by the Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church to raise funds in Europe in aid of this movement. Their mission lasted from September 1904 until March 1905. England, Scotland, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Switzerland and Germany were included in the tour. Since the money was donated almost entirely by individual supporters, it amounted to only 3 915. Because of the amalgamation of the Christian National schools with the government schools in March 1905, the funds raised through the mediation of the Nederlandsch Zuid-Afrikaansche Vereeniging and Het Christelijk Nalionaal BoerenComite were provisionally withheld.
The art of silhouette-making flourished in Europe from 1750 to 1840 but disappeared from the scene after the advent of photography: The silhoueue portrait was an inexpensive, quick type of portraiture practised by many artists and amateurs. The art form reached a zenith in Germany but was very popular in England, France and the Netherlands as well. In the course of time genre silhoueues, where groups of people were placed in shadow image against a painted background, developed into colourful folk-art paintings. A few examples of this unusual art form found in South Africa are discussed.
The rank and file from this part of the country have become known as very talented story-tellers. In this article examples of all types of oral literature as told by them are treated, from everyday true-life experiences to jokes.
The fIrst scientifIc institutions of the South African Republic originated during the presidency of T.F. Burgers (1872-1877). The Republic's fIrst State Museum was established in 1873 at Potchefstroom, under the auspices of the State Natural Science Association, to promote knowledge of the country's mineral resources. However, as the government neglected to provide funds and the seven directors of the association lacked appropriate knowledge and experience the museum was used infrequently and the association remained static. Although the museum survived the British annexation of the Republic in 1877, it was destroyed during the First War of Independence. The curator, A.F. Schubart, was appointed in 1892 as temporary clerk to help establish the new State Museum in Pretoria. Early in 1874, President Burgers took the lead also in establishing the Transvaal Literary and ScientifIc Society in Pretoria. The lectures arranged by this society reflect the active role played by English speaking clergy in the dissemination of scientifIc knowledge. The society did not exist for long, but one of its leading fIgures, James Buchanan, shortly thereafter had more success with a similar venture in the Orange Free State.