The wagon-building industry became the biggest industry in South Africa in the 18th century and kept its leading position till the end of the 19th century. It was mostly in Afrikaner hands. In this article firstly the general historical development of the industry is discussed. The article deals primarily with the wagon-building industry of the Paarl because of its leading role in South Africa. The wagon-building industry of the Paarl was been influenced by all the economic factors that prevailed in the rest of the country.
The Afrikaner formed a cultural minority group in Port Elizabeth. In the beginning of the twentieth century Port Elizabeth was one of the most truly English towns in South Africa. Regarding the language question, the English-speaking community was in principle opposed to any attempt at compulsion. They rejected the idea of compulsory bilingualism and believed that politicians should leave this question absolutely alone. They were of the opinion that English and Afrikaans would never be on an equal footing. English was widely recognised as the language of commerce and industry. Afrikaans was ignored in the City Council and other local governing bodies. There was a complete lack of Afrikaans books in the city libraries. In respect of the Afrikaans cultural life in the city, the idea of equal language rights came strongly to the fore. In this regard Afrikaans cultural organisations played a dominant role.
Beliefs about the Devil cannot be regarded as superstitions because the Devil is a very real figure in Christian religion. If people ascribe unrealistic and improbable characteristics to the Devil, these are referred to as folk beliefs. Afrikaans folk beliefs about the Devil and his works are illustrated primarily by the many references to this character in everyday language, folksongs. stories and jokes. In earlier years a very broad section of the population still believed firmly in certain features of the Devil which have today faded to mere humorous references. As far as his appearance is concerned. there are certain characteristics which remain embedded in folk beliefs because this is how he is almost consistently represented, namely with goat horns. goat hooves, an arrow-tipped tail and a trident.
The nine water-mills which were built on the northern outskirts of the townlands represented the first industries in the Transvaal. The first mill was built there in 1847. After that some 17 years passed during which time attempts to establish more mills failed. During the decades after 1864, however, there was a proliferation of watermills due to the production of grain in the area and the abundance of water in the Mooi River. As none of the 10 mills was situated on the river an extensive network of mill-furrows was created. The poor maintainance of furrows and bridges was the cause of endless complaints. Mill rights were granted subject to strict conditions, but a serious omissiom was that no speciflc allotment of water was made for milling purposes. This resulted in clashes and lawsuits over water rights between millers, farmers and the municipality as owner of the townlands. Celebrated court cases over the use of water from the river were those involving J.J. Hoffman, C.H. Baillie and I. Hjul. The fate of the water-mills was sealed by an ever increasing demand by the expanding town for water and the advent steam power.
HinduJavanese architecture originated in Java and Bali as a result of the expansion of Hinduism and Buddhism from India during the first centuries AD. Monarchs and the nobility accepted these religions enthusiastically and commissioned many temples for Hindu gods, Buddha and their own ancestors. Most sanctuaries were constructed in Central Java during the 8th and 9th centuries and in Eastern Java from the 10th to 15th century. After the Islamization of Java Hindus and Buddhists fled to Bali and their temples in Java fell to ruins. During the 20th century several of the temples have been restored or splendidly rebuilt. Eight Hindu temples on the Dieng plateau and the temple complex near Prambanan and the Buddhist sanctuary Borobudur, all situated in Central Java, as well as a few temples in Eastern Java are discussed. Finally, the differences in architecture between Central and Eastern Java are summarised.