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- Volume 8, Issue 2, 1994
South African Journal of Cultural History - Volume 8, Issue 2, 1994
Volumes & issues
Volume 8, Issue 2, 1994
The recent past in bone: faunal remains from the kitchen middens of an early 20th century residence, Pilgrim's RestSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 8, pp 43 –46 (1994)More Less
The faunal remains from middens of Alanglade, the mine manager's residence at Pilgrim's Rest, were examined. Of the four middens excavated, three yielded faunal remains. These three middens date to the first five decades of the twentieth century and represent the occupation of Alanglade by the first three mine managers. The remains illustrate aspects of life of the mine managers that have not been documented. Information was obtained on the use of beef, mutton and pork and on the meat cuts preferred. At least three chicken breeds, bantam medium and large were kept. Other poultry include turkeys and possibly ducks. Remains of a dog and chew marks on many bones indicate that medium and large dogs were kept. Game animals reflect hunting expeditions to the lowveld. The decrease in numbers of certain wild animals, such as small territorial bovids, indicates depletion of game in the area. Sea shells suggest visits to the seaside. Both the east coast (Natal and/or Mozambique) and the Cape west coast were visited.
Author H.J. LubbeSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 8, pp 47 –53 (1994)More Less
In any multilingual country there is a certain amount of tension between the speakers of the different language groups, The conquest of the Cape by England saw the beginning of the struggle between English and Dutch initially, and later between English and Afrikaans, as the official languages. This struggle manifested itself on many levels: in politics, in the economy, in education, and in the media, and, more importantly for this article, in the choice of place-names. This article examines the role of political, cultural and linguistic considerations in the naming of streets and suburbs in Bloemfontein between 1946 and 1986. Before this is done some tendencies in the naming of streets between 1846 and 1946 are touched on. In the first century nearly all streets were named after members of the British royalty and other members of the new rulers. This state of affairs lasted till 1945 when a predominantly Afrikaans city council and an Afrikaans mayor were elected. As political events and attitudes had an effect on the naming of streets in the previous century, political considerations and attitudes were to be manifested in the naming of streets in future. Not only were the names of certain streets changed, but in the new suburbs streets were mainly named after places and events that had a connection with the Afrikaner's culture. Requests from interest groups to name streets after certain political leaders, were turned down. The policy of the City Council was that streets be named first after persons who had rendered exceptional services to Bloemfontein, then after those who had rendered services to the Orange Free State, and lastly after persons who had rendered services to the country. Although a predominantly Afrikaans City Council was in office during the period 1946 till 1986, the interests and sentiments of English speaking ratepayers were always considered.
Author D.A. Van der BankSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 8, pp 54 –64 (1994)More Less
This article deals with the life and work of the well-known Afrikaans author, AA Pienaar, who wrote under the pseudonym of Sangiro. Emphasis is placed on his first and best-known book Uit oerwoud en vlakte (translated into English as The story of a lion family) and its place in Afrikaans literature. In an effort to clarify the controversy surrounding this work and its alleged indebtedness to the work of a virtually unknown German author, the whole question is treated in more detail. Sangiro's works are favourably reviewed in all Afrikaans literature studies and recent editions of his best-known books are evidence of his enduring popularity. Because his best-known books were inspired by the diverse fauna and flora of east Africa special attention has been given to the family's stay in German East Africa. Other books by Sangiro, such as Simba and Op Safari (On Safari), are also discussed. During his adventurous life Sangiro also made a living as a teacher, reporter, film producer, digger, farmer, and game warden. In spite of numerous newspaper reports and articles as well as an extensive collection of personal documents in the National Afrikaans Literature Museum and Research Centre there are still parts of his life, such as his stay in Germany, of which virtually nothing is known.
Author P. De KlerkSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 8, pp 65 –70 (1994)More Less
The Algemeen-Nederlands Verbond (ANV), a society for the promotion of the Dutch language and Dutch culture, was founded in 1895 in Brussels. The founder members regarded Dutchmen, Flemings and Afrikaners as the three components of the Dutch race. Shortly after the society had been founded, branches were formed in South Africa, and in 1899 about a quarter of all ANV members were resident in South Africa. Most of these were Dutchmen, but there were also Flemings and Afrikaners among the members of the society. Afrikaner leaders, such as F. W. Reitz and J.H. Hofmeyr, served on the executive council of the ANV in South Africa. During the Anglo-Boer War the activities of the ANV in South Africa were terminated. Although the society was re-established in 1906, it never again became as strong as it had been before the Anglo-Boer War. During the war the ANV in the Netherlands established a news agency which distributed news bulletins world-wide. These bulletins were aimed at promoting the Boer cause, and in this way the ANV made an important contribution to countering British war propaganda. After the war the ANV aided the spiritual and cultural recovery of the Afrikaner by sending large numbers of books to South Africa. This was the beginning of a world-wide distribution of Dutch books, which became one of the ANV's major activities.
Author Matilda BurdenSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 8, pp 71 –78 (1994)More Less
Official weather forecasters frequently suffer severe criticism due to the fluctuating results of their predictions which according to the general public, have an extremely varying and inconsistent success rate. The question arises whether it is at all possible for the layman to claim that he has a higher success rate in forecasting the weather. The educated weather forecaster has the added advantage of having a diverse selection of technical and scientific resources at his disposal. The layman, on the other hand, only observes the natural signs and phenomena in his immediate environment. Outeniqualand, the area surrounding George in the southern Cape has a very interesting weather pattern. There are various factors relating to the region's geography, which complicate the task of the weather forecasters, for example, the distance from the mountain to the sea, the berg wind conditions which can change very quickly and the direction of the wind which is also difficult to predict correctly. The inhabitants of this region have, however been observing these weather patterns for generations. Under specific conditions they can interpret certain weather signs with remarkable accuracy. When an approaching front, promising rain, is not as yet visible, the high moisture content in the air is revealed by, amongst other things, the behaviour of certain animals and birds as well as by closely observing the various sounds in nature. The very prominent Outeniqua Mountain also displays specific weather phenomena which are excellent guidelines for laymen weather forecasters to follow.
Author H.H. Van der MeschtSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 8, pp 79 –88 (1994)More Less
During the years 1893-1914 the amazing total of 31 students with South African connections studied at the famous Conservatory of Music in Leipzig. This article presents information about these pioneers, gleaned from their enrolment forms and final reports which are held in the Archives of the Hochschule for Musik und Theater ""Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy"" in Leipzig. The students came from Afrikaans, English and German backgrounds. They originated from cities like Cape Town, or from small towns like Richmond, Burgersdorp and Montagu. Some were born in Haiderabad in India, Potsdam in Germany, and Konigsberg in East Prussia. A number had studied in South Africa with some of the foremost teachers, including Rocco de Villiers (1838-1902), Prof. Jannasch (1853 1930} and P.K. de Villiers (1874-194). But from the reports can be deduced that many of them were ill-prepared for their studies at the Conservatory. The influence these pioneering South African students had on the development of classical music in South Africa must have been considerable. It is hoped that further research will reveal their hereabouts after their return to South Africa.
Author Magda OlivierSource: South African Journal of Cultural History 8, pp 89 –99 (1994)More Less
The popular black and white star inlay motif was popular on town furniture at the Cape in the 18th and 19th centuries. The oldest furniture ornamented with the two-colour star dates from late 16th century England, from where the motif spread to western and central Europe, reaching the USA and the Cape in the 18th century. The twocolour star was, however, much more popular in the country districts, where the first examples were encountered in Schleswig towards the end of the 17th century. In the 18th and 19th centuries the two-colour star appears most frequently in the north-western German regions of Niedersachsen and Nordrhein-Westfalen, followed by the province of Lorraine in the east of France. This particular star displays differences in various periods and regions. The twocolour star was probably the most popular inlay motif ever at the Cape. The form and variants of Cape stars correspond largely with those found on European furniture, although a few differences do occur. A variation favoured at the Cape is a star of which the points are further subdivided along the width into smaller black and white sections. Decorative framing such as banding or fan inlay on the comers was mostly applied to rural furniture. As in Europe, Cape furniture-makers applied the star mainly to storage furniture, notably on the cameos of the X-stretchers of cabinets and Bible desks. Stars applied as panel decorations were preferred in the country districts. Country furniture also displays a wider variety of furniture decorated with the motif, e.g. wagon boxes, built-in cupboards, a chest of drawers, a wash-stand and a settee. Available information presents an incomplete distribution pattern, e.g. the absence of the star ornament on Dutch furniture after the Queen Anne period, on early German furniture (excepting in rural areas), on French furniture (excepting in Lorraine) and on Belgian furniture. It is argued that the two-colour star probably reached the Cape via Germany, a strong centre of influence on our folk art and from where many Cape craftsmen originated. Recent research has indicated terminology such as ""two-colour"" and ""multi-coloured"" star as well as ""windrose"" (syn. compass rose) for the motif, which has otherwise always been described as a star. Evidence suggests that the users of the motif regarded it as nothing more than a variation of a star. It is therefore recommended that the name ""star"" be retained, and a ""two-colour star"" when distinguished from other variants of the ornament.