Commonwealth Youth and Development - Volume 1, Issue 2, 2003
Volume 1, Issue 2, 2003
Author Angela McIntyreSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 1 (2003)More Less
Children's social, political and economic spaces are protected to some degree in every society and the ways in which the child-adult transition is managed are as diverse as culture itself. While the applicability of definitions of childhood under international legal frameworks such as the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child has been subject to question, there is little doubt that armed conflict undermines the familial and community stability that permits children safe space for growth, development and learning. In recent years civil wars in Africa have erased the boundaries between soldiers and civilians; a situation in which children have become the targets of atrocities that include forced recruitment, sexual violence, genocide, and other assaults clearly intended to jeopardise the continuity of communities. The phenomenon of child soldiers has simultaneously become prominent in the media. Underlying what have verged on graphic and even exploitive portrayals of children in the name of advocacy is a trend that began even before Africa's colonial liberation struggles - the systematic political and military mobilisation of children and youth for political change. Beyond the debate on whether children can be considered volunteers, given the social and economic pressures they face, and beyond the litany of violations of children's rights that drives child advocacy, young people hold political and military potential that has consistently been exploited by conflict stakeholders and ignored by conflict analysts. This article explores the nature of child and youth agency in conflict in an attempt to show that young people are not only victims of conflict, but actors and stakeholders who are overlooked to the detriment of our understanding of conflict.
Author David MaundersSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 1, pp 22 –51 (2003)More Less
To counter the left influences in the pre-war American and world youth congresses and the communist domination of the World Federation of Democratic Youth, founded in 1945, leaders of youth organisations in the USA and Britain set up national and international agencies for the development of youth work and the involvement of young people to promote democracy and human rights. Such agencies needed extensive funds, which were eventually liberally provided by the CIA. Generational conflict in the 1960s finally exposed this, but the State Department continued financial support. From the beginning, young American delegates argued for the democratic control of World Assembly of Youth (WAY) by young people, thus directing generational conflict to the international arena, which suited US government agendas. Government withdrew its financial support when WAY no longer served its purposes and the United States Youth Council (USYC) rationalised its withdrawal by accusing WAY of no longer being committed to democracy and human rights. The USYC became more narrowly based and subject to government agendas, which prompted Congress to withdraw funds. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the dominance of New Right agendas removed the likelihood of renewed support.
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 1, pp 52 –68 (2003)More Less
The impact of HIV / Aids in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is increasingly being felt. This article describes experiences in the field by examining affordable ways in which to provide home care and explores experiential learning methodologies to raise awareness of HIV among young people in order to reduce the high incidence of HIV.
Author Chandu ChristianSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 1, pp 69 –86 (2003)More Less
Author Steve MokwenaSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 1, pp 87 –107 (2003)More Less
Youth participation has become a buzzword and one of the key slogans in development efforts worldwide. However, the lack of a coherent theoretical base and the absence of a shared conceptual framework make it difficult to develop strategies aimed at participation by youth to assess outcomes. This article explores key concepts contained within the contemporary discourse and barriers to youth participation. It contributes to debate by exploring ways in governments can stimulate participation and improve its quality.
Author Amanda ShahSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 1, pp 108 –127 (2003)More Less
Partnerships and networking are crucial components of an enabling environment within which youth can contribute meaningfully towards establishing the 'good society'. This article explores the importance of youth networks and organisations and barriers in effective collaboration. Using a rights-based framework, the author explores concepts such as accountability, relevance and ownership, and examines various spheres of youth involvement in matters of governance. She puts forward a number of recommendations that would enable youth to be actors for positive rights-based development.