Commonwealth Youth and Development - Volume 10, Issue 2, 2012
Volume 10, Issue 2, 2012
Author Mpfariseni BudeliSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 10, pp 1 –17 (2012)More Less
Children are the future of the nations and the world. Children's rights are enshrined in several international human rights instruments as well as in national constitutions all over the word, including the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. Children's rights include civil and socio-economic rights. One of these rights is the right to be protected from any economic exploitation and from work that is dangerous to their health and hampers their development. Accordingly, child labour is a violation of children's fundamental human rights.
Against this background, this paper investigates child labour, its nature, causes, and forms in the light of the relevant international legal instruments as well as the South African Constitution, labour legislation, and case law in the Republic of South Africa. It is submitted that child labour persists in South Africa despite its condemnation by several international instruments endorsed by the Republic and by its own Constitution. The paper provides a review of international instruments and South African legislation in relation to child labour. It examines the causes, nature and extent of child labour and reflects on the socio-economic conditions of working children in South Africa. It also investigates the challenges and how they may be overcome to protect children's rights better in South Africa, particularly their socio-economic rights, and bring an end to child labour in this country. It ends with a brief conclusion on the prospects for children's rights and child labour in South Africa.
Author Naomi Luchera ShitemiSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 10, pp 18 –28 (2012)More Less
Focus on Youth as a demographic category and development instrument became significantly appreciated on Kenya's socio-economic and socio-political scenes in the late 1990s and 2000s thus becoming significant indices in the two paradigms and beyond. The Ministry of State for Youth Affairs was established in 2005 and took on the component of Sports from the Ministry of Gender, Sports, Culture and Social Services to make up the Ministry of State for Youth Affairs and Sports (MOYAS) in 2008. As a result, several initiatives, governmental and non-governmental, have emerged working towards policy-development and related interpretation and implementation strategies. Action-oriented-initiatives and funding strategies whose goal is to attend to youth issues in a variety of ways have been engaged in the process.
This article discusses the aspect of Youth Agency in/and (for) development in Kenya with a focus on two case studies within the context of the Government's vision and goals for attending to the Youth agenda. The League of Young Professionals-Kenya (LYP) is a group driven by youth; while The African Christian Initiation Programme (ACIP) is driven by a group of University Professionals targeting young and adult participants for holistic impact. Best practices and benchmarks of the two cases are shared. Transformative and participatory theories guide the study while participatory, survey, interview, observation and document analysis methodologies are applied.
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 10, pp 29 –47 (2012)More Less
The University of South Africa is a mega-distance higher education institution offering degrees and diplomas to about 360 000 students worldwide. To deliver on its mandate, the university needs a skilled, dedicated and a motivated academic workforce. Attracting and retaining academic staff remains one of the biggest challenges, especially in the light of an aging cohort of productive senior academics and a general shortage of skills. A three-month full-time Young Academic Programme was designed and implemented to focus on the development of tuition, research skills and academic leadership. Since the programme has been repeated a couple of times since 2008 and have graduated 59 young academics, the university decided to evaluate the programme to determine if it was achieving its objectives, The evaluation of the programme identified various strengths and weaknesses. Most of the participants experienced the programme as inspiring, insightful and of a high quality. Some even reported that it was a life-changing experience. Positive contributions include solid exposure to teaching and learning and knowledge of the broader academic environment. Areas that need more attention are research methodology, community engagement, transfer of learning, mentoring and coaching.
Author Ghazala Begum EssopSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 10, pp 48 –77 (2012)More Less
The aim of this article is to investigate perceptions of target communities regarding corporate responsibility in a predominantly Indian community of Merebank in South Africa. Economic participants in society expect more from organisations in terms of behaviour towards and consideration to societal needs and the surrounding environments. These expectations force firms and their managers to adopt strategies to gain favourability and consumer support. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is not a recent phenomenon but has recently gained popularity since it has been utilised as a strategy (World Bank 2005). Business actions impact consumers, employees, suppliers and communities either positively or negatively (Rochlin 2000). However, this article argues that although corporate social responsibility has existed for some time, there is a lack of information around this extensive concept in South Africa. There is insufficient information on precisely how CSR initiatives benefit community of Merebank.
Author Davie E. MutasaSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 10, pp 78 –89 (2012)More Less
The quest for economic development on the continent demands that youth engage in projects that are essential for the upliftment of the lives of members of their local communities and the nation at large. For this to happen youths should exude the spirit of enterprise and energy and realize their dreams and fulfil their hopes. However, one surmises that for the youth to achieve their developmental goals linguistic competence is essential. It is presumed that language is an integral part of development. The aim of this article is therefore to explore the relationship between youth, development and language.
Author T.A. AmaoSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 10, pp 90 –97 (2012)More Less
Despite the involvement of youths in social vices, their role in the growth and development of any society has never been in doubt. Historically, the youths have made significant impacts in science and technology, sports, arts, community development service, among others. Using the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) scheme as a case study, this paper underscores the specific contributions of Nigerian youths to socio-economic development in the Nigeria.
Empowering the youth through the development of critical thinking skills in the English First Additional Language classroom : ideal versus realityAuthor Blandina MakinaSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 10, pp 98 –111 (2012)More Less
Current trends in the field of teaching and learning view one of the roles of education as being able equip the youth with critical thinking skills to enable them to cope with the demands of the 21st century. However, while policies have been drawn up to reform education in line with this vision, there is a dearth of tangible evidence to show how far this ideal is being realised at classroom level. This paper seeks to determine the extent to which a group of English First Additional language teachers in South Africa sought to develop their learners' critical thinking skills. It draws on a larger project that investigated the impact of educational reform in this country. The unit of analysis is a group of student teachers registered for an English methodology course Teaching English: General Principles offered by the University of South Africa's (Unisa's) Department of English Studies. The paper seeks to answer the following question: to what extent are teachers developing learners' critical thinking skills in line with the government's vision? It is in three sections. The first is a literature review of the theoretical constructs that ground the study. This is followed by the presentation of data and discussion of findings. Finally, insights pertaining to the study are discussed.
Author Enongene Mirabeau SoneSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 10, pp 112 –119 (2012)More Less
The protracted and deep-rooted economic crisis in Cameroon that started in the late 1980s has affected nearly every Cameroonian and has had a profound, negative impact on the well-being of the Cameroon youth in particular. As a result, the youth can no longer depend on their elders: most of whom have failed to provide a good future for the younger generations who in turn had taken the challenge by fighting for their future. This is because the social organization of most Cameroonian societies is based on the assumption that age and the experience that goes with it are indispensable to the well-being of the country. One of the means commonly used to inculcate the principle of seniority is the proverb. This paper will discuss the role of elders as custodians and holders of wisdom, knowledge and moral values, good enough to guide the youth. The paper is built on the hypothesis that the degeneracy of the present age (youths) can be attributed to a failure of proper guidance and leadership by the elders. It further contends that, unless the authorities address the crises in employment, education and other institutions, the predicament facing contemporary Cameroon youth will remain unresolved and possibly worsen. To support my argument, some proverbs which deal with the position of elders in society, especially their relationship with the youth shall be used. Selected proverbs that appropriately address social maladies, with regards to the youths are also employed. Finally, the paper proposes that in order to tackle the endemic indiscipline and criminality in Cameroon, it will be necessary for elders to take their moral responsibilities more seriously, use proverbs in their daily life and be good role models for the youth.
Author Katy KhanSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 10, pp 120 –134 (2012)More Less
This article seeks to change the perception of African indigenous knowledge as traditional, atavistic and savage that are popularized in some western writings. The article will do so by with methods of reclaiming indigenous medicine as advertised by some herbal doctors or Sangomas of Pretoria. The article seeks to explain the reasons why the Sangomas - sometimes called 'traditional healers, witchdoctor or Healers or just Doctors - chose to advertise their healing practices in the written flyer and in the 'sexually' open language they use. The article is concerned with analyzing the themes and narrative strategies that these healers use in advertising themselves. The article argues that there is a certain ambivalence in both the narrative messages contained in the Sangomas' advertising forum of the flyer as well the figure of the healers as described on the flyers. This ambiguity is also due to the audiences' perceptions at the Sangomas attempt to reclaim the power of indigenous medicine in a commercial context where efforts at promoting indigenous medicines are promoted as well as undermined in the modern society.
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 10, pp 135 –147 (2012)More Less
The development of academic language skills is important for scholastic and academic achievement, an essential aspect of youth development. This article looks at the benefits of academic literacy through sheltered instruction and the possible negative effects when academic literacy is not conceptualized in the whole curriculum. A case study of three cohorts of school leavers from 2004 to 2009 illustrating the relationship between academic achievement and the language of learning and teaching is presented. A noteworthy finding from the case study is that the pass rates of the school leavers are impressive in English but the benefits do not transfer to the pass rates in Mathematics and Science even though these two subjects are offered through the medium of English. Practical advice on how academic literacy should be developed is given, drawing on a taxonomy which is divided into six categories of skills and activities that progress from lower levels to higher levels of thinking and engagement literacy.