Commonwealth Youth and Development - Volume 12, Issue 1, 2014
Volume 12, Issue 1, 2014
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 12, pp 1 –14 (2014)More Less
The study traces the pathways of young people who dropped out of school between grades 1 to 11 as they seek re-entrance to the education, training and development (ETD) system, or entrance into the labour market. Particular attention is given to the factors that determine the choices that drop-outs make in either re-entering the ETD system or entering the labour market. An analysis of the experiences of the interviewed sample of drop-outs is presented. The study employs a qualitative research methodology, using interviews to elicit the experiences of drop-outs and school managers. Through snowballing, 14 youths and three principals were selected from a township south of Durban. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted. The findings provide insights into the drop-outs' perceptions regarding the value of investing in education. They are discussed further in relation to the respective theories used in the study. The concluding section suggests the need for investments in second chance education by government and the private sector, and proposes an integrated model to assist young people who re-enter psychologically and emotionally.
Determining the relationship between infrastructure and learner success : a comparative study of two primary schools in ZimbabweSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 12, pp 15 –32 (2014)More Less
This study was designed to examine the extent to which the availability of adequate infrastructure or lack of it affects the future success of learners. This was against the backdrop of the persistent calls by researchers and agencies for the engagement with issues around basic, youth and adult education in Southern Africa so as to find ways of dealing with the region's escalating primary school drop-out rates and limited access to both technical and vocational education. The study adopted a purely qualitative approach to uncover the meanings that participants attach to their behaviour, how they interpret situations, and what their perspectives are on particular issues. This study was conducted in two primary schools in Zimbabwe among 52 participants, which included 20 learners and 32 educators. The study indicates that the level of infrastructure available in the schools varies and, in some cases, is inadequate. But more importantly, the study found that a well-equipped school is more functional and presents better learning opportunities for learners. The study recommended, among other things, that school planners, funders and policy makers should take note of the positive impact that a functional, clean and attractive school building can make on education. The size of the population is small; therefore generalisation should be done cautiously. This paper adds to the literature on the significance of quality infrastructure in facilitating learner education, especially in a burgeoning economy such as Zimbabwe.
Reconciliation without justice? An analysis of the film, Reconciliation in Zimbabwe, the first ten yearsSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 12, pp 33 –46 (2014)More Less
The aim of this article is to explore the idea of reconciliation and justice in the documentary film, Reconciliation in Zimbabwe, the first ten years (1990). This film is one of the very first and few films to deal with the themes of reconciliation and justice from the perspective of the moving image. At the centre of the film narrative is how different political constituents in Zimbabwe between 1980 and 1990 think about the question of reconciliation and the possibility of ultimate justice. Coming immediately after the war, the film debates the varied and diverse expectations of Zimbabwean whites and blacks, and the role of memory in relationship to the new politics of tolerance proposed by the Prime Minister of Zimbabwe, Robert Gabriel Mugabe. The article argues that the significance of the film lies in the desire to balance hotly contested perspectives on what constitutes reconciliation and justice in Zimbabwe.
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 12, pp 47 –58 (2014)More Less
In Zimbabwe, the marauding effects of the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are felt in almost all families, among different age groups, class lines, races and creed. The effects are debated and discussed, and different intervention measures are suggested using various forms of media. The communication-science-based interventions and advocacy promoted through film are an integral part of biomedically based scientific research into understanding the nature and manifestations of HIV/AIDS. However, it is worrisome that in most of the research, debates and discussions that focus on HIV /AIDS, adults take the centre-stage. This practice of speaking for youths, and not to and with them, denies the reality that youths are agents of social change whose "voice" and action can have the capacity to transform society for the better in the face of HIV /AIDS. In Zimbabwe, one methodological approach that youths can use to debate and spread the message about the devastating effects of HIV/AIDS is film. In the Zimbabwean section, this article singles out the short film The sharing day (2009) as an informative and communicative tool that features youths dramatising narratives of hope, pain and sorrow as they are confronted by the reality of HIV/AIDS. In the South African section of the article, the abcnews.com documentary (2001) on Xolani Nkosi Johnson's struggle with HIV/AIDS is used to signal hope. The article critiques documentary filmmaking on Johnson, using criteria such as youth involvement (Harrison et al. 2010; Wang 2006), effectiveness of the message (Hanan 2009) and bonding and bridging social capital (Foulis et al. 2007).
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 12, pp 59 –74 (2014)More Less
There are many youth workers who continue to design their interventions without any theoretical basis, despite a long history of youth work as a field of practice. The aim of this article is to present selected ideologies and theoretical frameworks underpinning youth work practice. These ideologies and theories, although predominantly borrowed from other disciplines, provide insight on how youth work should be practised.
Based on a thorough literature review, the authors have selected different theories and ideologies that youth workers, like other professionals, are expected to know, understand and to adapt to youth work practice. These theories are important and would serve as theoretical frameworks on which youth work interventions will be based and, thereby, provide youth workers with the means to predict and analyse the situations of young people from different viewpoints to enable the development of different strategies to address relevant problems.
The article concludes that theories and ideologies should be used as reference points, and youth workers mix and match different theories and ideologies depending on the nature of problem they are addressing at that particular time.
Author Mankolo LethokoSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 12, pp 75 –91 (2014)More Less
When the democratic government came into power in 1994 in South Africa, it faced formidable problems stemming from the structural and historical inequalities and imbalances created by apartheid. Among the challenges included climate change. The release of the 2013 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) report indicates that climate change is a reality and its effects globally are getting worse daily. However, South African youth have not been adequately educated about climate change through formal basic schooling so that they can act as change agents.
This article argues that the curriculum has to include relevant and the most recent content on climate change so that children can become agents of climate change in their homes and communities. The article uses content analysis of the National Curriculum Statement (2012) to determine the relevance and currency of climate change content in the present basic schooling curriculum. The article also makes recommendations on how the present content can be revised and made relevant to South African schools.
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 12, pp 92 –100 (2014)More Less
This article explores the constructions of the identities of male and female children in the film, The Stoning of Soraya M. On the surface, the film is about the stoning to death of a married woman falsely accused of adultery. However, the article argues that this ugly performance is enacted in order to warn Muslim children to observe their fixed social roles that Muslim and adult males have created for the children of both sexes. The film's content and cinematograph addresses male children to become further emboldened in carrying out the dictates of a male authored society, while indirectly warning women not to aspire to freedoms beyond the kitchen and the socially-sanctioned bedroom space. As cautionary tale, the film uses stoning as a metaphor of repression of independent thinking in both male and female Muslim children.
Author Maurice Taonezvi VambeSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 12, pp 101 –121 (2014)More Less
The memoir, WARCHILD: A child soldier's story (Jal 2009), though written several years after the author-narrator's experience, claims its authority from the child soldier's forced participation in a war of persecution that is narratively reworked in the child's imagination as a war of the liberation of South Sudan. This article aims to explore what happens to historical fact when the narrative shifts from the testimony of a child witness to the narrative archived in the form of memoir. Agamben (1999) seeks to explain this lacuna and his idea of the aporia at the core of narrative of testimony in memoir is useful in revealing how in a written account of the self, 'reality exceeds its factual elements'. Young (1988, 23) amplifies the paradox of 'factual testimony', such as memoir, and indicates that this genre cannot achieve the 'convincing factual authority' that it wishes to establish because of the ever present 'anxieties of displacement of events by their own texts'. Thus, the trauma experienced by the child soldier is a result of 'double dying' (Rosenfeld 1980) as he witnesses the actual physical dying and death of fellow child soldiers, as much as the death of an authentic account of self in war, produced when fictional metaphors threaten to obliterate raw experience. The article argues that metaphor's propensity to usurp historical fact is the basis upon which the narrative of the child soldier's trauma becomes the condition of possibility of remembering and recording both historical facts and the meaning of desecration and liberation.