Commonwealth Youth and Development - Volume 7, Issue 2, 2009
Volume 7, Issue 2, 2009
Author Linda CornwellSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 7 (2009)More Less
This issue of Commonwealth Youth and Development brings to the fore the scope and depth of scholarly interest in matters relating to young people. The multi-disciplinarity of academic research is reflected in the variety of sectoral foci represented by the contributions published here. As always, the contributions come from various states across the Commonwealth.
Author Tim CorneySource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 7, pp 2 –10 (2009)More Less
In the youth and community sector the debate about the place of emancipatory practice frameworks such as 'empowerment' and 'participation' to both youth work and community work is ongoing, as is the debate about the relationship of 'youth work' to the practice of 'community development'. However, recent research exploring the values, ideology and practice frameworks underpinning the training and preparation of professional youth workers suggests that youth work is firmly rooted in the theory and practice of community development.
Author Robyn BroadbentSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 7, pp 11 –19 (2009)More Less
This article highlights the varied literature and evaluations of youth employment, education and training programmes in Victoria, Australia, and internationally. The aim is to identify the elements of good practice and the success from considering the barrier of employment within a much more holistic context. The best results for young people come from agencies and workers who have relationships with employment or further education providers. Young people depend on strong social safety nets to provide them with opportunities to interact in their community, develop skills and knowledge, and foster strong relationships with key adults outside of school and home, with whom they can establish a robust social bond.
Author Kofi Poku Quan-BaffourSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 7, pp 20 –28 (2009)More Less
This article proposes non-formal education (NFE) programmes as an important strategy for making refugee youths less vulnerable. NFE has the potential to ensure that young people are useful to both themselves and their host country. For the past 20 years, ethnic, political and socioeconomic conflicts have brought instability to a number of African countries. This has resulted in the mass movement of millions of youths across borders to escape compulsory conscription, starvation and death. Stable countries on the continent have thus become safe havens for most refugee youths, with South Africa receiving more than its share of refugees from conflict zones. Since 1994, when the country returned to the international community, South Africa has opened its doors to thousands of asylum seekers: most of these are youths with little or no formal education and training. Their lack of knowledge and skills not only makes them vulnerable, but also difficult to integrate into the socioeconomic culture of the host country. The article advocates equipping refugee youths with basic knowledge and skills through non-formal education programmes, to enable them to create work, increase their self-confidence and dignity, and empower them to play a meaningful role in South Africa's socioeconomic development. The article points out that ignoring uneducated, unskilled and unemployable refugee youths may not be in the best socioeconomic interest of the host country.
Managing technical and vocational education (TVE) as a poverty alleviation initiative : the Nigerian experienceAuthor Okachi F. OkalaSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 7, pp 29 –40 (2009)More Less
Among the causes of poverty in Nigeria is the poor state of technical and vocational education (TVE) in the nation's education system. This has led to a shortage in the practical skills and competencies required for optimal employment in both the public and private sectors of the economy, while restricting chances to develop entrepreneurial ventures. The graduates produced by the country's tertiary institutions do not seem adequately prepared for the challenges and skills requirements of their potential employers, as a result of inadequacies in the school system. Unemployment is the result. That explains why the transition from school to work is no longer feasible. Technical and vocational education should be repositioned to emphasise practical skill acquisition, in order to enhance self-employment and entrepreneurial development as a poverty-alleviation initiative. Thereafter, chances of full employment will increase, as other job avenues open through emerging innovations and entrepreneurial ventures. This option will increase family earnings, thus reducing poverty in society.
Teachers' experiences of conflict and violence in township schools : a case study of Walmer-Gqebera, South AfricaSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 7, pp 41 –54 (2009)More Less
Violence and conflict are prevalent in South African schools and are especially widespread in townships and informal settlements. The aim of this study was to explore and describe teachers' perceptions and experiences of conflict, violence and aggressive behaviour in the schools of Walmer-Gqebera Township in South Africa. This study reveals that teachers experience insults, threats, bullying, conflict and physical violence among learners on a daily basis, with much of it happening in classrooms. Violence and aggressive behaviour in township schools are caused by a complex interaction of micro factors at the community level and macro factors linked to socioeconomic conditions and the educational structure. Failure to address the problems in South African schools holistically will further increase the alienation of students from a culture of learning, and contribute to spiraling and destructive cycles of conflict and violence.
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 7, pp 55 –72 (2009)More Less
The article presents findings on a study on the perceptions and attitudes of Malawian university students towards interdenominational marriage. The article proceeds on the principle that denominations are important socialisation loci in any cultural setting. In addition, denominational teachings on marriage and the family may actually influence a member's choice of mate in marriage. The study was conducted at Bunda College of Agriculture - a constituent college of the University of Malawi - among 131 respondents drawn from the 535 students at the college. The findings indicate that denominations continue to play important social identity functions among students in Malawi. The findings also show that at least 50% of those dating, are doing so across denominational lines. However, some students show a high rate of intra-denominational dating. Among such students are the Seventh Day Adventists and the Pentecostals. It is the perception of the respondents that in the event of an interdenominational marriage, the wife should convert to the husband's denomination. While religion continues to play a vital role in the life of students, there is uncertainty about its role in the choice of a future spouse.
Author Maurice Taonezvi VambeSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 7, pp 73 –81 (2009)More Less
Most South African literature that young people consume is created for and not by the youth. The absence of the youth's voices in art tends to allow adults to speak for them or on their behalf. While this situation is not avoidable, or even valid, it tends (particularly after 1994) to be assumed that youths cannot write art that advances democratic development by questioning (1) the apartheid narratives; (2) the black nationalist narrative; and (3) the black elite triumphalist narrative of peace and stability. This article problematises these assumptions by exploring some youths' creativity through poetry in South Africa. Youth creativity has tended to feature anthologies of poetry by individual poets, but a 2008 anthology, We are (2008), which contains several black and white young people's poetic voices, was compiled and edited by another young poet, Natalia Molebatsi. The aim of this article is to explore how the youth's poetic voices have chosen to announce their presence in a creative context in which the literature of development or the development of literary culture has been narrowed down to criticising apartheid only. Images of youth in development discourses are covered by giving a thumbnail history of the precursor to youth creativity in South Africa, before carrying out an analysis of selected important themes from the anthology We are.
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 7, pp 82 –93 (2009)More Less
This article is predicated on the importance of language usage in HIV and AIDS prevention. It also draws from emerging findings from other research studies that youths in Africa are particularly adept at circumventing cultural restrictions on the discussion of sex and sexuality, by developing their own special language which their elders cannot understand. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods, the study revealed some terms and expression used by Chitonga-speaking youths when discussing issues related to HIV and AIDS in Kavuzi, Nkhata Bay in northern Malawi. The study also revealed that youths have coined expressions and terms that they can understand to the exclusion of those who do not form part of their circle. The article also discusses the implications of such an exclusionary form of discourse on much-needed openness in matters surrounding HIV and AIDS.