Commonwealth Youth and Development - Volume 8, Issue 2, 2010
Volume 8, Issue 2, 2010
Demographic tragedy or opportunity : are micro-issues necessitating a new social contract with the youth in South Africa?Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 8, pp 2 –15 (2010)More Less
South Africa is at a crossroads. How it responds to the need for the social and economic inclusion of its large youth population will determine whether the outcome is tragic or opens up opportunities for the youth and the country at large. It is argued that the youth bulge / surge in the number of South African youths and the life disruptions they face are placing severe strain on their current social contract with government, perhaps with the potential to ignite large-scale civil conflict. The contract, encapsulated in youth policy and programmes, is rights-based. In this article, stressors relating to the current social contract are identified. The interaction between and the unintended consequences of the various demographic, societal and policy stressors are discussed. Finally, policy and practical issues that should be urgently revisited to create new prospects for the youth and ensure that the country benefits from the demographic dividend are identified. Directions are suggested for a reconsidered social contract that may ensure greater compatibility between societal expectations and outcomes.
Author V.G. GasaSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 8, pp 16 –29 (2010)More Less
A study was undertaken to determine the extent to which the community contributes towards aggressive behaviour exhibited by secondary school learners. An extensive literature review showed that social factors contribute to aggressive behaviour among learners. In order to support or reject the findings of the literature study, quantitative (questionnaire) research was conducted. The research results concerning the contribution of social climate towards learners' aggressive behaviour in secondary schools indicated that the more negative the social climate of the learner the more aggressive the learner is, and vice versa. There is a need to consider intervention strategies that target learners and community members in order to reduce learners' aggressive behaviour. The inclusive intervention programmes outlined in this article are essential to help reduce negative effects on individuals, schools and communities.
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 8, pp 30 –43 (2010)More Less
A discrepancy between knowledge, values and sexual behaviour of Anglican youth aged 18 to 24 years was found in a baseline study in South Africa. This finding suggests that Anglican youth engage in sexual activities that run contrary to their supposed knowledge and values. They are seemingly not able to convert religious belief and factual knowledge into appropriate behaviour. In this article we will address why this is the case. The reasons for inappropriate behaviour despite having sufficient knowledge will be discussed based on the results from the baseline study. The four factors that may explain the gap between values and behaviour among Anglican youth are presented. These factors are institutional differentiation, legitimacy, type of church and contextual factors. In addressing these factors churches could gain information to contribute to being more effective in influencing behaviour and could consequently contribute to decreasing HIV infection rates.
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 8, pp 44 –56 (2010)More Less
Within the context of human rights and development education, the authors explore the importance of the visual in constructing and understanding ways of seeing in the world. In exploring a number of key aspects of art, for example ambiguity, complexity and contradiction, the authors examine the role of art in public education, in communication and in storytelling; outlining some of its key contributions and potentials. Two case studies are presented - one exploring the issue of genocide and applying some of its understandings and lessons to Northern Ireland and the second outlining a methodology developed to explore the 'personal' dimensions of human rights and their relevance to self. Both case studies arise from the work of the Irish NGO 80:20 Educating and Acting for a Better World.
Author Carol AllaisSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 8, pp 57 –64 (2010)More Less
Despite the widespread commitment to the rights and plight of children, the discrimination against and abuse of children, particularly in conflict areas, remains widespread. Sexual exploitation and abuse in armed conflict is a common occurrence and a range of perpetrators are involved. The United Nations has been subject to allegations of serious sexual misconduct by its peacekeepers in many parts of the world for many years. Studies have identified perpetrators from peace missions as involved in 'every kind of child sexual abuse and exploitation imaginable'. Sexual violence and abuse - regardless of the degree of overt physical force - has severe physical and psychological consequences with few victims having any access to care or counselling.
The ongoing sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) of children by United Nations peacekeepers is of particular concern, due to the complexities of holding perpetrators accountable. Major factors underlying SEA by peacekeepers are immunity from prosecution in many cases, the technical difficulties involved in investigating cases and the hyper-masculine culture of predominantly male peace missions. Protecting vulnerable populations, especially children, from abuse by peacekeepers requires a more sustained effort on the part of the United Nations and Troop Contributing Countries to hold offenders accountable.
Source: Commonwealth Youth and Development 8, pp 65 –75 (2010)More Less
The problem of low performance in mathematics by youths in high schools limits their future participation in professions deemed to be essential for the country's economic development, such as those in engineering. This problem has been regarded as a legacy of apartheid education policy which excluded the majority of black youths from mathematics education in South Africa. Taking cognisance of this view, the 1995 White Paper on Education and Training promulgated a redressing of this problem through various mathematics interventions. However, low achievement in mathematics by black youths graduating from high schools has persisted in spite of these interventions. This article argues for the incorporation of positive characteristics inherent to these youths as a result of their developmental stage, such as enhanced cognitive development, identity formation and the positive coping styles of South African adolescents. As mathematics learning relies largely on cognitive activities, this article concludes that this might have been the gap/missing link that needed to be addressed in mathematics interventions over the past decade. It proposes the infusion of adolescent characteristics which have the potential of enhancing mathematics learning among the youth and this is viewed as the gap/missing link in mathematics interventions.
Evolution of the youth service in Mauritius (1948-2010) and its subsequent professionalisation through open distance learning at the Mauritius College of the AirAuthor Roshun DhurbarrylallSource: Commonwealth Youth and Development 8, pp 76 –93 (2010)More Less
This paper, as the title indicates, charts the development of the Youth Service in Mauritius since the pre-independence era. With the growing importance attached to the youth by the government nowadays, there is an urgent need to review the functioning of youth cadres at the Ministry of Youth and Sports (MYS) and see how best to reskill them to assist the youth in coping with the challenges they face so that they develop and mature into a responsible
While the Diploma in Social Work served its purpose at one time, this is no longer tenable. A bespoke programme with a more flexible delivery mechanism is more consonant with contemporary requirements.
Furthermore, since youth officers in full-time / part-time attendance on courses jeopardise the smooth running of the MYS while also straining the purse strings of the Ministry, more cost-effective means have to be resorted to.
The Diploma that the Indira Ghandi National Open University (IGNOU) offers is therefore a reasonable alternative. The mid-term evaluation carried out by the Secretariat of the Commonwealth Youth Programme in 2002 highlights some weaknesses in the delivery of the Diploma in other countries of the region.
As the Division of Distance Education at the MCA has mechanisms in place for the quality management and delivery of flexible learning programmes, this paper also focuses on how the Diploma is going to be delivered to the Youth Officers. The deadlines have already been set for the implementation of the project.