Discourse - Volume 33, Issue 1, 2005
Volume 33, Issue 1, 2005
Author Ronel JohlSource: Discourse 33 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... The theme of our first edition of Discourse for 2005 is ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT with theemphasis on the challenges facing the countries ofthe world in the 21st century regarding the utilisationof alternative sources of energy.To start understanding these challenges, one hasonly to look at the developments in die South Africancontext the past ten to fifteen years. South Africanscelebrated ten years of democratic freedom last year- a democracy that has been rewarded witheconomic growth but a growth, like everywhere elsein the world, is not without negative effects.Urbanites experience the ambivalence of economicgrowth in for example the increasing clogging ofaccess routes ..
Author Tertius HarmseSource: Discourse 33, pp 1 –5 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... Basically, solar energy was trapped through photosynthesis by plants and life in animals over a geologic time of, say, 400 Ma. The solarenergy was therefore ""stored"" in fossil fuels and can be extracted rapidly these days by burning it.The burning of coal at a rate of billions of tons per annum worldwide started mainly since the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century,initially to drive steam engines and then later to generate electricity. Large-scale consumption of crude oil started with the introductionof the internal combustion engine at the end of the 19th century.
Author Marthinus Van SchalkwykSource: Discourse 33, pp 6 –9 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 06DiscourseDiskoers Vol.33.1 | 2005Marthinus van SchalkwykOne of the most positive changes affecting South Africa since 1994 has been the attitudeshift from one which saw the interests of people in opposition to the interests of theenvironment, to one that places people at the centre of the environmental equation.Nowhere was this paradigm shift more evident than at the World Summit on SustainableDevelopment (WSSD), hosted by South Africa in 2002. The Heads of State of more than180 nations spoke with one voice identifying poverty and global inequality as the greatestobstacles to sustainable development.Challenges inEnergy and theEnvironment07DiscourseDiskoers Vol.33.1 | 2005The WSSD also provided ..
Author Chris CooperSource: Discourse 33, pp 10 –13 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... Thoughts on transport,the environment andtechnology optionsWithout secure, accessible and affordable supplies ofappropriate energy, society as we know it would not exist. Onecharacteristic of the modern world is the availability of effectivetransport networks. Globally, about one third of all energyconsumed is for transporting people and goods. Most of thisenergy is sourced from petroleum. The ability to move peopleand goods rapidly and cheaply over great distances epitomisesrecent global development. Yet such globalisation comes at anenvironmental price, and with a warning for the future.
Author Louis Van HeerdenSource: Discourse 33, pp 14 –16 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... Over the past two decades, Renewable Energy (RE) hasbeen largely applied as the primary energy sourcefor stand-alone power solutions supplying lowcapacity applications in areas that are farremoved from the electrical grid.Grid applications have been limited to a fewhydro stations and some biomass generation (mainly for ownconsumption), while Eskom has been actively researchinglarge-scale applications under its SABRE-Gen (SouthAfrican Bulk Renewable Energy Generation) programmesince 1998. This programme has to date led to tworenewable energy demonstration initiatives, namelythe Klipheuwel Wind Energy Demonstration Projectin the Western Cape and the Solar Dish Stirlinginitiative in Midrand, Johannesburg.
Author Vivian AlbertsSource: Discourse 33, pp 17 –20 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... More than 77% of our total energy needsat a global level are currently satisfied bycoal, and we rely on burning carbon-releasing fuel (coal, oil, liquefied petroleum, natural gasesor wood) for a total of 97% of our energy needs. In South Africa, Eskom generates about 71% of itselectricity from coal-fired power stations. Not only are these conventional sources of energy nonrenewableand in dwindling quantities, but they threaten massive environmental disruptionthrough global warming. The continued exploitation of these resources at current consumptionlevels will also lead to its complete depletion and ultimately to massive industrial and socialdislocations.
Author Chris ReineckeSource: Discourse 33, pp 21 –24 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... The energy mix of the world will in all likelihood, change very significantly into thefuture due to a significant decline in oil reserves and production. It is anticipatedthat production of oil and gas will halve by 2050 if compared to 2004 productionlevels. This gap will most likely be filled by coal and it will regain its dominanceas the primary energy resource of the world. Furthermore, if the current trendscontinue, the dominance of fossil fuels as an energy source will continue forat least the next fifty years.This scenario can potentially be threatened by the ..
Author Anton J. StafleuSource: Discourse 33, pp 25 –30 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... Many citizens have experienced the effect of electricity blackouts insome of South Africa's metropolitan areas during the last year.According to the spokespeople, these blackouts were mostly attributedto the unreliability of ageing equipment. Fortunately these problems were relatively simple to resolve. Consumers may start to experienceblackouts due to a much more fundamental problem though.According to certain forecasts, electricity demand will outstrip thesupply of electricity from as early as 2007 as illustrated in figure 1.
Author Olivia AndrewsSource: Discourse 33, pp 31 –34 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... Nuclear Energy Costs the Earth Campaign(NECTEC) is a campaign launched by EarthlifeAfrica, an environmental volunteer-basedorganisation. The campaign aims to combat thefurther development of nuclear energy in SouthAfrica; prevent the importing and smelting ofnuclear waste and materials; and promotesustainable alternatives. Its main focus is opposingthe proposed Pebble Bed Modular reactor (PBMR),a full-scale 115 MW prototype of the hightemperaturegas-cooled reactor. It is being builtat Koeberg to provide power to remote areas andto create a potential export business for Eskomand its associates.
Author Steven BloySource: Discourse 33, pp 35 –39 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... Addressing the above-mentioned topic in afairly short article is no mean feat, givingthe topic serious substance at the same timeeven less so. Fortunately there are numerousand varied angles from which to approachthe topic, and this discussion will do so witha strong mining influence.With the promulgation of the Mineral andPetroleum Resources Development Act, 2002(Act No. 28 of 2002), mining in South Africahas gone from an initial ""free for all"" in thenineteenth century to all mineral reservesbeing reverted back to the State in the twentyfirstcentury.