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oa Discourse - South Africa's depression / recession, the national democratic revolution, and the developmental state : a 'development studies' perspective

 

Abstract

The national democratic revolution (NDR) is a well-used theoretical formulation from the 'left' of the African National Congress to explain South Africa's stage of development within a Marxist framework. The idea arises from the fact that Marx and Engels did not expect their idea of a workers' revolution to take place in underdeveloped societies, so theorists on the left in the Third World had to take into account the fact that capitalism might have to be encouraged, much to their chagrin, so their societies could advance to the appropriate stage of development for socialist struggles. The NDR had to spell out the role of leftist leaders in Third World societies before and after liberation from colonialism or minority settler rule. In many cases the NDR has served as an excuse for authoritarianism ('unity is needed for development') and the eternal postponing of problems of socioeconomic justice ('let the forces of production develop first'). It rarely tackles issues such as economic recession and depression ('short termism'). This paper attempts to analyse how South African interpretations of the NDR augur for the immediate and long-term crisis as South Africa faces its historically rooted problems, exacerbated by the current crisis. It concludes that the NDR as articulated in South Africa is not particularly helpful; indeed, it may augur increased authoritarianism.

Die nasionale demokratiese revolusie (NDR) is 'n goeie teoretiese formulering van die "linkerkant" van die African National Congress om Suid-Afrika se ontwikkelingstadium binne 'n Marxistiese raamwerk te verduidelik. Die idee ontstaan uit die feit dat Marx en Engels nie verwag het dat hul idee van 'n werkersrevolusie in onderontwikkelde samelewings sou plaasvind nie, derhalwe moes teoretici aan die linkerkant in die Derde Wêreld die feit in ag neem dat kapitalisme tot hul spyt dalk aangemoedig sou moes word, sodat hul samelewings tot die geskikte ontwikkelingstadium vir 'n sosialistiese stryd kon vorder. Die NDR moes die rol van linksgesinde leiers in Derdewêreldsamelewings voor en na bevryding van kolonialisme of minderheidsregering deur setlaars uitspel. In baie gevalle het die NDR as verskoning gedien vir outoritarisme ("eenheid is nodig vir ontwikkeling") en die ewige uitstel van probleme rakende sosioekonomiese geregtigheid ("laat die produksiekragte eers ontwikkel"). Kwessies soos ekonomiese resessie en depressie ("korttermynisme") word selde aangepak. Hierdie artikel poog om te ontleed wat Suid-Afrikaanse vertolkings van die NDR vir die onmiddellike en langtermynkrisis inhou, terwyl Suid-Afrika te kampe het met sy histories gewortelde probleme wat deur die huidige krisis vererger word. Daar word ook tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die NDR, soos dit in Suid-Afrika verwoord word, nie besonder nuttig is nie; dit kan inderdaad groter outoritarisme voorspel.

'Diphetogo tša demokrasi tša bosetšhaba' ke sebopego sa teori se se dirišitšwego ka boati go tloga 'letsogong la nngele' la African National Cogress go hlaloša 'magato a tlhabollo' a Afrika Borwa ka gare ga tlhako ya Marxism. Kgopolo e rotogile go tšwa go ntlha ya gore Marx le Engels ba be ba sa letela gore kgopolo ya bona ya 'diphetogo tša bašomi' e tla phethega ka go ditšhaba tšeo di sa hlabologago, bjalo borateori ka 'letsogong la nngele' ka go 'Lefase leo le lego lenaneong la go ihlabolla' ba swanetše go lemoga lebaka la gore 'bokapitale' bo ka swanelwa ke go hlohleletšwa, gore ditšhaba tša bona di ka 'gatela pele' go maemo a maleba a thlabollo ya dikatano tša bosošiale. NDR e swanela go bolela tema ye e kgathwago ke baetapele ba letsogo la nngele ka ditšhabeng tša Lefase leo le lego lenaneong la go ihlabolla pele le ka morago ga tokologo go tšwa go bokoloniale goba molao wa badudi bao e sego babantši. Mabakeng a mantši NDR e šomile bjalo ka lebaka la go thibela pušo ya go buša ka molamo wa tšhipi ('kopano e a nyakega go tlhabologo') gape gošutiša go go sa felego ga mathata a toka ya ekonomi ya leago ('e re maatla a tšweletšo a hlabollwe pele'). Sengwalwa se se leka go fetleka ka fao ditlhathollo tša Afrika Borwa tša tlholo ya khuduego ya gabjale le ya lebaka le le telele bjalo ka ge Afrika Borwa e lebane le mathata a yona a histori ao a ikepetšego ka medu, ao a napago a oketšwa kudu ke khuduego ya moragorago. Se ruma ka gore NDR bjalo ka ge e bolelwa ka Afrika Borwa, ga e thuše ka selo, ka nnete, e ka hlola pušo ya go buša ka molamo wa tšhipi ye e okeditšwego.

Ukuphenduka kwentando yeningi kuzwelonke, i'national democratic revolution' (), umthetho ofinyiwe wetiyori osetshenziswa kahle osuka esinxeleni sikaKhongolose () ukuchaza ngebanga lentuthutthuko kuhlaka lweMarxist. Leli lisu lisukela eqinisweni lokuthi uMarx no-Engels babengalindele ukuthi isu labo lokuphenduka 'kwabasebenzi' lwenzeke emiphakathini engathuthukile, manje abaqambi bamatiyori abasesinxeleni 'emhlabeni wesithathu' kwakufanele bathathele esibalweni iqiniso lokuthi kungadingeka ukuthi icapitalism igqugquzelwe, ngale kokujabha kwabo, ukuthi imiphakathi yabo ingaqhubekela phambili ukufinyelela ebangeni elifanele lentuthuthuko ngezizathu zemizamo yabembono wesocialism. Le kwadingeka ukuthi icacise kahle indima ezodlalwa ngabaholi bemiphakathi yemihlaba yesithathu ngaphambili nangemuva kwenkululeko ekubusweni ngabamanye amazwe noma ukubuswa abayingcosane. Ezindabeni eziningi i idlale indima yobundlovu kayiphikisa ('ubumbano luyadingeka entuthuthukweni') kanti futhi ukuhlehliswa okungunaphakade kobulungiswa komnotho-mphakathi ('akuvunyelwe amandla okuqhikiza athuthuke kuqala'). Kuba ivelakancane ukuthi ibhekane nqo nezindaba ezifana nokuhlehla komnotho nokuntuleka kwezinto zonke ('isikhashane esifishane'). Leli phepha lizama ukuhlaziya indlela iNingizimi Afrika iqonda ngayo i nomhlahlo wayo ikrayisisi yakhona manje nesikhathi eside njengoba iNingizimi Afrika ibhekana nezinqinimba zayo ezinomsuka emlandweni, izinhlungu zazo ezandiswa ikrayisisi yomnotho ekhona manje. Liphothula ngokuthi i ngokucaciswa kwayo eNingizimi Afrika ayinalo usizo olutheni; ngempela kungenzeka ukuthi ibangele izinhlungu zobundlovukayiphikiswa eziphakeme.

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/content/discourse/37/2/EJC31198
2009-12-01
2016-12-06
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