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- East African Geographical Review
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- Volume 1972, Issue 10, 1972
East African Geographical Review - Volume 1972, Issue 10, 1972
Volumes & issues
Volume 1972, Issue 10, 1972
Author I.D. ThomasSource: East African Geographical Review 1972, pp 5 –26 (1972)More Less
In this paper an attempt is made to depict simply the spatial pattern in Tanzania of one measure of mortality, namely infant mortality, to make an exploratory analysis of the spatial association of this and related environmental conditions, and to discuss certain problems encountered in such investigations. It is, thus, a study in population geography, but more basically it deals with the intra-national variations in a population characteristic about which there is little general knowledge, whose significance is underestimated, and which should be given considerable importance in assessing regional social wellbeing.
Author El-Sayed El-BushiraSource: East African Geographical Review 1972, pp 27 –50 (1972)More Less
The towns of Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman situated around the confluence of the Blue and White Niles at latitude 15ï¿½36' N. and longitude 32ï¿½31' E. form the national capital of the Sudan (Fig.1). From the economic point of view the conurbation, with its present population of about 650,000, is by far the most significant producing and consuming urban centre in the Sudan. The concentration of skills and therefore of high incomes in the urban area is indicative of higher productivity and higher rates of consumption than that prevailing in the rest of the country. Al though the initial sites of both Khartoum and Omdurman were chosen because of their strategic importance, the growth of the cities during the last seventy years has been largely attributed to economic factors.
Author R.C. HarkemaSource: East African Geographical Review 1972, pp 51 –64 (1972)More Less
This article deals with some geographical aspects of tobacco production in Zambia. Tobacco growing in this country is considered to be one of the ways of diversifying the copper oriented economy. A few figures may elucidate the dominance of copper over agricultural production in Zambia's economy. The country's total exports in 1970 amounted to 714.7 million Kwacha,* of which 681.1 million came from copper and another 22 million from zinc, lead and cobalt. The value of the main agricultural export, tobacco, amounted to 3.1 million Kwacha only, which is less than ï¿½% of the total exports.1 It is hoped that a substantial contribution to the reduction of the country's excessive reliance on mining for foreign exchange can be obtained by increasing the exports of tobacco, especially Virginia flue-cured tobacco. Subsequently, increased tobacco production is envisaged to contribute to an improvement of the standard of living in many of the rural areas, thus diminishing the impetus behind urbanization. In the present article most of the attention is given to Virginia flue-cured tobacco, which is the most important crop. Burley and Oriental tobacco will be dealt with in less detail.
Author W.T.S. GouldSource: East African Geographical Review 1972, pp 65 –74 (1972)More Less
In an earlier review of geographical literature on patterns of educational provision and opportunity in Tropical Africa1 it was argued that a geographical approach can contribute to understanding the evolution and implications of past, present and, with the aid of the increasingly powerful predictive tools that are available, future patterns of educational opportunity. Although it is usual to conceive of equality of opportunity in a social context,2 there are obvious spatial implications for regional disparities in opportunity create economic and political difficulties. Successive governments of Uganda have recognised the problem of existing regional discrepancies in educational opportunity and declared a policy of reducing these, for Uganda is typical of African countries where schooling is neither compulsory nor universal at any level and 'inequalities in education facilities and their utilization among areas of a country are usual'.3
Author Gulzar JamalSource: East African Geographical Review 1972, pp 75 –88 (1972)More Less
The provision of social services like medical and education facilities, constitutes an important aspect of the planning process. The locational assignment of these services to different areas of a country is influenced by a number of factors, chief of which is the total population in a particular area. More relevant for the purposes of planning, however, is the age structure of the population. But in the absence of such data, it is felt that an acceptable guideline in the allocation of these social services is aptly summarised by the principle ""The greatest benefit for the greatest number"" for, to all intents and purposes, the number of people to benefit from a service is the real issue in social planning. With this maxim in mind, an attempt is made to assess the current distribution of three major services in relation to total population based on a system of grid squares covering the land area of Uganda.
Author John ConnellSource: East African Geographical Review 1972, pp 89 –92 (1972)More Less
Work began in July 1970 on Lilongwe, the new capital city of Malawi, and, after Nouakchott in Mauritania and Gaborone in Botswana, the third new post-independence capital in Africa. The Malawi Housing Corporation has begun to build houses and the first Ministry building, for the Ministry of Works and Supplies, should be completed by the end of 1971, whilst the Ministries of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Education should be established there by early 1972. The first capital in Nyasaland was sited at Zomba before the end of the 19th century, where the administration could live at a respectable distance from the missionaries in Blantyre, and where the scenery was slightly more beautiful, but it gradually became apparent that the forty mile distance between Zomba and Blantyre, where the majority of settlers and business interests were centred and which was nearest to the most important airport at Chileka, made administration difficult.
Author John TyrrellSource: East African Geographical Review 1972, pp 93 –98 (1972)More Less
Muguga is situated in the Kenya Highlands, some 15 kilometres to the north-west of Nairobi. It is located on the slopes of the Tertiary-Recent Volcanic Highlands and Plateaus1 which have been considerably dissected by eastward flowing rivers. The surrounding area is fairly densely populated, but large areas of agricultural smallholdings are broken by areas of afforestation. The latter are composed of several hardwoods of economic importance, including pinus patula and pinus radiata. In recent years these species have suffered from the attacks of pineus spp.2 It was in relation to the spread of this aphid that the study outlined below was conducted. Some of the work was also carried out as part of the undergraduate field training programme.
Author Donald FunnellSource: East African Geographical Review 1972, pp 99 –104 (1972)More Less
In studying the spatial organization of retail outlets it is of particular importance to estimate the relationships between any given enterprise and its suppliers. The pattern of dependence thus found also assists in demarcating the extent of the trade area of suppliers. According to central place theory, a distinct hierarchical pattern of dominance should be found whereby the lowest centres are dependent upon the suppliers in the next highest level for goods. At the same time Marshall1 has pointed out that a prerequisite for adequate analysis of a set of centres is the provision that this set comprises the total system of centres with regard to a pre-determined highest order place. This then requires that the spatial linkages should be determined, and closure of the system of places achieved.
Author J.P. OcittiSource: East African Geographical Review 1972, pp 105 –110 (1972)More Less
Fieldwork, mapwork and the use of pictorial material are all techniques which are advocated for teaching geography both at the primary and secondary levels of education. To be educationally beneficial, however, each must be adapted to the group of children for which it is intended. In the first instance, the learning activities must be related to the stages of the mental growth and development of children.1 Secondly, we ought to accept what Scarfe calls the ""theory of concentric development"", that is, that geography should be taught as a consecutively developing topic growing rather like a biological organism and that a programme of geographical studies should be planned which provide for a sequential development of increasingly difficult concepts or ideas as a method of introducing pupils to the study of geography and of developing their skill in using the methods and tools of that discipline.2 Thirdly, we must have some clear ideas as to what constitutes the core of school geographical education whose development has to be partly promoted through successive stages of fieldwork programme.