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- South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
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- Volume 1, Issue 3, 1998
South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences - Volume 1, Issue 3, 1998
Volumes & issues
Volume 1, Issue 3, 1998
Prediction of the success level of entrepreneurial ventures by means of biographical and business variables in a third world settingSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 1, pp 348 –361 (1998)More Less
A study to determine the degree to which biographical and business variables can predict entrepreneurial success is described. Archival data obtained from the records of a venture capital organization were used. Data were obtained for two cohorts, each of which represented individuals to whom financial assistance was provided in a given financial year. Criterion data consisted of the entrepreneurs' accounts three or four years later. The total sample consisted of 569 small business owners in 435 business firms. Data were captured on 14 biographical and 16 business variables. A statistical analysis strategy to limit capitalization on chance was implemented. The results indicated that the number of loans granted, nationality of entrepreneurs, security cover, education level, economic sector, number of dependants, language preference, and race appeared as predictors of success.
Author E. NorthSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 1, pp 362 –376 (1998)More Less
A content analysis is presented of the portrayal of child actors in advertisements obtained from nine consumer magazines over a three month period in 1983, 1987, and 1997. A limited number of studies have investigated the portrayal of children in magazine advertisements, but no previous study looked exclusively at the roles children depict in advertisements. The primary objective of the present study was to describe the various roles children portray in full page magazine advertisements. Secondary objectives focused on the age and sex of the models and the use of children of different races in the same advertisement. The results indicate that children are portrayed in seven different roles in the advertisements. Suggestions for further research are offered.
Source: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 1, pp 377 –389 (1998)More Less
The South African Police Service (SAPS) is increasingly moving towards community policing. This movement makes great demands on the interpersonal efficiency of police officers and their trainers. It seems, however, that trainers in the SAPS seldom have sufficient knowledge and/or skills to manage interpersonal contact effectively. A two-group design was used to evaluate a training programme regarding interpersonal efficiency for instructors within the SAPS Training College. It transpired that interpersonal skills improved significantly after completion of the training programme. As far as qualitative impressions are concerned, it was found that certain organisational factors might inhibit the development of interpersonal efficiency of trainers.
Author E. Brynard, P. & Van RooyenSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 1, pp 390 –404 (1998)More Less
The South African Government regards affirmative action as an important method to rectify the discriminatory career practices followed against Blacks, Coloureds, Indians and women under the previous political dispensation. Legislation and policy that provide for affirmative action in institutions have been formulated and are considered in this paper. After normative and empirical research, it is concluded that it is possible to develop strategic affirmative action programmes in local government institutions and that affirmative action can be managed in terms of a strategic process in local government. It is further concluded that managers in local governments play a key role in the successful implementation of strategic affirmative action programmes.
Author L. YadavalliSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 1, pp 405 –421 (1998)More Less
This paper considers the growth experience of the South African economy during 1970-1994, against the background of the international convergence phenomenon affirmed by Daumol (1986). Convergence refers to the idea that countries with initially low real per capita income tend to grow faster than wealthier countries, and that their per capita income levels and growth rates will eventually reach a common end-state. This empirically observed catching-up process by the developing countries is assisted by their economic restructuring. Here the growth performance of the South African economy is compared with some established and newly industrialised countries, using statistical dispersion and distance measures.
An economic case for regulating against the use of non-deposit carrying glass containers of beverage in South AfricaAuthor S. HoskingSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 1, pp 422 –445 (1998)More Less
As a result of minimal private cost many people dispose of non-deposit bearing glass containers in ways which cause glass pollution: hazardous broken bottles and litter. This pollution imposes costs on users of the affected environment and on municipalities, which have most of the responsibility to clean up, although in South Africa the two main glass packaging producers also play a role by operating a recycling system. A case study was carried out in the Port Elizabeth area in which exploration is made of the glass that does not get recycled and an intuitive analysis is made of the costs of different options for managing recyclable glass waste. It is concluded that the case deserves further investigation for introducing legislation in South Africa making bottle deposits mandatory.
Author D. MahedeaSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 1, pp 446 –462 (1998)More Less
This paper critically examines the attainability of the targets set out in the South African Growth, Employment and Redistribution strategy (GEAR). The GEAR document envisaged an economic growth rate of 4.2% per annum, on average, with a rapid expansion of employment over the five-year period ending in 2000. However, actual performance thus far falls short of GEAR projections, except for definite progress towards a reduction of the budget deficit. The current macroeconomic conditions, an over-regulated labour market, prohibitive taxation, low savings and high crime rates make it difficult to stimulate entrepreneurship and attract sufficient investment, especially of a labour absorbing nature, to meet the GEAR projections. The GEAR targets evidently need to be scaled down.
Author M. SorgSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 1, pp 463 –482 (1998)More Less
The sole function of an orthodox (or ""pure"") currency board was to issue paper money fully backed by foreign assets, for which it was exchangeable at a fixed rate. Present-day currency board arrangements, however, are usually coupled with certain instruments of monetary policy too, albeit less extensive than in the case of conventional central banks. This paper sketches the establishment of the Estonian currency board in 1992, and its subsequent impact on the economic reform and performance in Estonia.
Author C.J. Bothma, L.J. & JordaanSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 1, pp 483 –497 (1998)More Less
This study, which was conducted in a Bloemfontein residential area, revealed that a considerable number of domestic workers may lose their jobs if a minimum wage is implemented. In order to keep job losses to the minimum, a minimum wage should not be too far above the current market wage level. This article sets out how labour market theory and empirical research can assist policymakers to determine market and minimum wage levels for domestic workers. The main conclusion of the research is that a minimum wage for domestic workers should be regressive - higher for part-time than full-time workers.
Author E. KleynansSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 1, pp 498 –512 (1998)More Less
The object of this paper is to demonstrate the use of an alternative method to measure and quantify international competitiveness. The South African agricultural sector is taken as a case study. The paper builds on Bela Balassa's method (1989) of measuring comparative advantage by means of historically revealed advantage. In practice this method is easy to use, readily applicable and the necessary data are usually available. The results of this measuring exercise are interesting and support the hypotheses that a low level of labour productivity contributes significantly to the low international competitiveness of South African agriculture.