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- South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
- OA African Journal Archive
- Volume 3, Issue 2, 2000
South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences - Volume 3, Issue 2, 2000
Volumes & issues
Volume 3, Issue 2, 2000
Source: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 3, pp 165 –188 (2000)More Less
Black women workers in South Africa are highly marginalized in that their work has been undervalued and underpaid due to disadvantage and discrimination. They were severely curtailed by legislation that aimed to keep them away from urban areas and the formal job market. This paper reports the results of an empirical study of the work done by black women in the manufacturing and retail industries. The purpose of the study was to determine the kind of work black women do and the nature of the job processes. The article examines the main findings of the study.
The relationships of Type A Behaviour, organisational and personality variables among pharmacists and accountants - a further analysisAuthor A.B. Van Wyk, R. & BoshoffSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 3, pp 189 –211 (2000)More Less
This paper is a follow-up of a previous study on the correlates of Type A Behaviour among professional workers in South Africa. In the previous study, data were analysed for a joint group of375 pharmacists and accountants. In the present study, the two professions are analysed separately. Product-Moment Correlation and Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis are used to determine the relationships between Job Satisfaction, Job Involvement, a number of personality variables and Type A Behaviour in samples of accountants (N = 175) and pharmacists (N = 200). Differences between the results for the two occupations were found to exist and are discussed in this paper.
The labour supply conditions for the transformation of peasant agriculture in Africa: lessons from a Malawian experienceAuthor P.H. SimukondaSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 3, pp 212 –234 (2000)More Less
In implementing rural development projects, African states expect that the otherwise poor peasantry would respond positively by maximising use of the productivity-enhancing technologies available to them, in order to improve their income status. The basic requirement is that the producer must supply significantly higher levels of productive labour-time, mainly from subsistence production and other traditional activities. The Malawi experience suggests that this process revolves around the critical role of both the physical and psychological dimensions of labour-time application. Therefore, the transformation of peasant commodity-surplus producers is unlikely to be effectively achieved, unless attainable commodity income is sufficient to at least support both customary production and subjectively defined socio-economic goals.
Source: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 3, pp 235 –244 (2000)More Less
This paper investigates the impact of fiscal policy on foreign direct investment (PDI) in South Africa during the past 30 years. Casual empirical analysis reveals a definite linkage between FDI flows and variables such as the deficit/GDP ratio, representing fiscal discipline, and the tax burden on foreign investors. This relationship is substantiated by econometric analysis. Given the economy's large degree of dependence on foreign capital, the government may contribute to an investor-friendly environment by adjusting fiscal policy. Some inroads have been made in this regard with the government's Medium-term Expenditure Framework (MTEF), which projects a policy of strict fiscal discipline in years to come. However, the tax burden is still relatively high and, due to its impact on foreign direct capital flows, requires urgent attention.
Author R. IlorahSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 3, pp 245 –272 (2000)More Less
The Nigerian agricultural export sector has been through three different development phases: transition, peak, and de-agriculturalisation. Blending simple international trade theory with actual facts, this study supports the notion that production during the transition phase enjoyed a classical ""vent for surplus"" type of growth, involving increased utilisation of available factor inputs, which in turn produced increased per capita income. Coupled with the classical factors were several technological packages introduced to fanners in later years. These led to the attainment of output peaks mainly in the 1950s and 1960s. Finally, the study argues that the foundation for de-agriculturalisation was already laid during the peak phase when fanners were taxed heavily, and several agricultural projects were biased against them.
Author B. LubbeSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 3, pp 273 –289 (2000)More Less
This article gives an overview of the changes and developments in the travel industry and the way travel intermediaries like travel agents are responding to them. These changes include the deregulation of airlines and the advent of global distribution systems, the pressure from airlines for lower distribution costs, rapid and fundamental changes in technology and consumer preferences. The responses by travel agents include rapid integration and consolidation within the industry, the use of technology to streamline operations and expand market reach, and the review of traditional revenue models to make way for new approaches to revenue generation. In conclusion, some future scenarios for both leisure and corporate travel distribution are outlined.
Author R.P. Van der MerweSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 3, pp 290 –307 (2000)More Less
Psychometric tests are widely used as aids in occupational decisions, including the selection and classification of human resources. Recent and ongoing developments in South African labour legislation, especially the implications of the Employment Equity Act, highlight once again the importance of validating all instruments used for assessment and selection purposes. This is a follow-up study, reporting on an investigation into psychometric testing in industry today. Information was gathered to establish which psychometric tests are presently used, and for what purpose. Biographical information on each company concerned is supplied, including the number of employees. The role of psychometric tests in the selection procedure is discussed, as well as the levels at which the tests were applied. The various tests used, as well as the users, are indicated, and comments, recommendations and shortcomings discussed.
Source: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 3, pp 308 –319 (2000)More Less
This paper investigates whether the use of debt in the capital structure of a company is beneficial to its shareholders. It finds that, in the South African context, gearing has no effect on the value of a company. The use of debt can increase the value of a company in a country where capital profits and interest are taxed equally. This is the result of an interest tax shield, which is directly related to the tax deductibility of interest paid. However, when capital growth and dividends are exempt in the hands of investors, as is the case in South Africa. the interest tax shield does not exist, and there appears to be no benefit in increasing debt.
Author E.E. Struwig, F.W. & SmithSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 3, pp 320 –333 (2000)More Less
This article sets out to examine the organisational culture types of South African firms. A literature study revealed four common organisational culture types, namely a power, role, task and person culture. An empirical study of 3000 South African firms by means of a self-administered questionnaire, investigated which of the four organisational culture types the firms exhibit. It appears that most of the respondent firms have a task culture. This culture is one that can adapt quickly, and where influence is based on expertise rather than personal authority. This in turn indicates that most South African firms do have an organisational culture that is compatible with a changing and competitive environment.
Author M. Olivier, I. & FletcherSource: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 3, pp 334 –343 (2000)More Less
With the current focus on establishing long-term customer relationships, the enhancement of the entire shopping experience and the role of atmosphere and the emotional reactions it elicits, are becoming increasingly important. Determining the factors that contribute to the creation of pleasant or unpleasant shopping experiences can influence future strategic planning. The focus of this study falls on the way that the physical environmental factors of a store, more specifically the environmental odour, affect consumers' emotional responses. This is discussed on the basis of environmental psychology, using certain research findings as well as theoretical models to shed more light on this topic.