Education as Change - Volume 10, Issue 1, 2006
Volume 10, Issue 1, 2006
Author Wilhelm Van RensburgSource: Education as Change 10, pp 1 –2 (2006)More Less
The third edition of The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research not only redefines and demarcates the social science research enterprise today; it also intimates future research possibilities, chief of which include the reconnection between social science and social purpose; the rise of indigenous social sciences; and the decolonization of the academy (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005:1115-1124).
Source: Education as Change 10, pp 3 –15 (2006)More Less
In today's litigious society, every management action of the school principal is potentially loaded with legal implications. It is therefore important for the school principal to have a clear understanding of legal principles that equally apply to education management. Invariably, one would not expect a principal to consult a lawyer every time a professional decision needs to be taken. This research has examined the legal implications of delegation as one of the school principal's managerial tasks. It proceeds from the premise that the school principal possesses statutory delegated authority and common law discretionary powers of delegation. It is therefore crucial that in exercising such powers, due consideration should be given to certain legal principles, such as: the delegatus delegare non potest rule prescribing that "a delegate cannot delegate his authority" and the ultra-vires doctrine, restricting the exceeding of powers given. An empirical investigation was undertaken with reference to the legal framework within which school principals delegate authority. The research concludes that as part of education law the understanding of these and other legal principles is vital to all school principals as it enhances their management skills.
Author Kakoma LunetaSource: Education as Change 10, pp 17 –25 (2006)More Less
In a study conducted to investigate mentorship and its relevance to continuous professional development for teachers of mathematics, it was established that mentoring teachers is equivalent to continuous professional development. Four teachers were involved in a mentorship programme that included training in teaching practicum supervision and guidance for student teachers of mathematics and neophyte mathematics teachers' induction. The mentor teachers acknowledged that as they trained in mentorship and engaged in the supervision and guidance of student teachers they were in fact involved in continuous professional development that sharpened their instructional skills. Mentorship assisted mathematics teachers to reconceptualize and reflect on their instructional skills and critically evaluate their teaching strategies as they interacted with student teachers and neophyte teachers. This paper highlights the mentor teachers' reflections of what they encountered in training to become mentor teachers and how their roles evoked dormant instructional and supervisory abilities.
The role of language within a varied and interdisciplinary Arts and Culture curriculum : meaning-making for Arts facilitatorsSource: Education as Change 10, pp 27 –40 (2006)More Less
This article investigates the role of language in an Arts and Culture curriculum and argues that since as much emphasis is placed on language in the curriculum as on creative work, a language of meaning-making in cultural pedagogy needs to be invented. The emphasis on a verbal language (as opposed to, say, a visual one) is borne out in the literature on art education as well as in the numerous published learning materials, such as educational supplements. We argue that one explanation for this is the close relationship between art and language that has existed for more than a century. Another is the intersection between language and culture which articulates the importance of indigenous knowledge systems with regard to arts and culture. However, if one has to theorize about the relationship between arts and culture and any concomitant pedagogy, one has to account for a shift from 'language' to' discourse' about arts pedagogy that is co-created by teachers and learners in order to form what Bernstein calls an 'internal language of description'. This article reports on an auto-ethnographic investigation about the way in which educators go about inventing and challenging such a language formation. The major finding is that cultural consciousness forms an important aspect of linguistic resistance on the part of teachers or artist-facilitators / practitioners.
Source: Education as Change 10, pp 41 –54 (2006)More Less
This paper seeks to contribute to current research on variations within moral orientations of children initially pointed to by Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan. The study is unique in that it has not been possible to locate studies in the South African context that have examined the moral logic children bring to their judgements of violent and potentially violent events. Data was obtained from a group of children ranging in age from 9-13 years, 12 girls and 18 boys enrolled at an urban primary school in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. The participants in the study come from diverse language, racial, religious, and ethnic groups. High levels of crime and violence are prevalent in the working class communities in which the children live. They were requested to reflect upon two scenarios depicting real life dilemmas, and then engage in moral judgements and decision making in response to probing questions put to them in interviews. Results revealed that, contrary to Gilligan's view, across age and gender the children's responses reflected a moral orientation higher to justice than to care. 65% of boys' responses show greater use of a justice orientation in their reasoning than care orientation (35%). A similar trend was evident with girls across the age ranges: 60% of girls' responses were justice oriented as opposed to 40 % that were care oriented. An interesting finding was that girls' use of a justice orientation increased with age, and the use of moral reasoning that reflected a care orientation decreased with age. However, in line with Gilligan's theory, boys' responses across age ranges reflected a higher orientation to justice than to care. The findings contribute to this increasing unraveling of what seemed to be an initially simple variation in moral reasoning based on gender. They show a stronger tendency towards a justice orientation within a community struggling with poverty and violence in a post revolutionary society.
Author Ray BassonSource: Education as Change 10, pp 55 –70 (2006)More Less
Unlike the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA), where evaluation research is well-developed, in South Africa it seems muted, if not under-developed, as a field of research. The author suggests that the starting point of this research is evaluators' reflection on their practices, to explore anomalies and contradictions, find resolutions, develop new thinking, and grow evaluation. Brief background comments provide a sense of alternative evaluation approaches in the UK and USA, within which he explores developments in the anthropological strand. Discussing these through empowerment evaluation, he suggests how adjudications may be made in each and how monitoring and evaluation may be conceived. The article closes with comments for benefits accruing to evaluation from evaluators reflecting on their practice in this country, to grow it as a legitimate field of research kept alive by a national association, conferences, and journals.
There is rebellion afoot, and revelry : the nascent reformation of intellectual integrity within South African universitiesAuthor Christo LombaardSource: Education as Change 10, pp 71 –84 (2006)More Less
Across the world, the "university is infested by the managerialist cultures of strategic planning, staff appraisal and quality control" (Waters, 2000:xiii). The way in which the role of the Vice-Chancellor has in practice come to be defined, namely as a medium term managing director, is perhaps a prime example of this trend. This is the case too with many South African universities. Particularly at the bilingual universities (that is, the former Afrikaans language universities), academics have been managed into carrying an unduly large administrative and lecturing load, and as such are unhealthy for the academic integrity of the university. In this paper, this state of affairs is briefly described, and some signs are indicated which show a growing sense of resistance against these developments. The classic role of the academic remains the most valuable to the university and to society.
Author Boris UrbanSource: Education as Change 10, pp 85 –103 (2006)More Less
My paper identifies and elucidates key issues of entrepreneurship education (EE) and entrepreneurial intentions (EI). I analyse and critically discuss within the broader context of entrepreneurial activity in South Africa, EE trends. I investigate entrepreneurship as a discipline and field of academic inquiry by examining definitional controversies and pedagogical methodologies, along with their theoretical underpinnings. The impact of EE is explored, in particular the link between intentions and entrepreneurial behaviour. Based on empirically tested models, the construct EI is operationalized and the construct validity tested. Data is collected from a sample of 150 learners and subjected to factor analysis delineating a suitable factor structure. Several recommendations are made, based on the literature review and survey findings.
Source: Education as Change 10, pp 105 –120 (2006)More Less
Since the vast number of scholars will be the taxpayers of the future, implementing tax education at school level should greatly enhance the success of the tax system. This will ensure that the majority of South Africans will have the opportunity to receive a basic understanding of tax and be more aware of what may be expected of them in the future. This paper investigates the existing level and adequacy of tax education in South African schools. A number of shortcomings within the current school tax curriculum in South Africa have been identified, for example use of wrong terminology and the absence of flow charts and case studies. In addition, it has been found that educators do not receive proper training on the content of the curriculum, with no assistance available from the South African Revenue Service (SARS) in this regard. It is suggested that SARS and the Department of Education (DoE) work in collaboration to improve the current tax curriculum, which will potentially make an increasing percentage of South Africans responsible taxpayers, who properly understand their obligation to contribute to and improve the tax compliance culture within this country, one of the main visions of the South African Revenue Service.
Source: Education as Change 10, pp 121 –132 (2006)More Less
This paper examines the implementation of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) through simulation games in the International Relations foundation course at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits). PBL is becoming an increasingly popular teaching and learning approach at tertiary institutions, however, as it usually requires students to display sophisticated levels of knowledge in the subject and the ability to solve complex problems, it is often only used in higher years of study. This paper argues that PBL can be an excellent teaching and learning tool at the foundation course level if the course is well-conceptualised and scaffolded, and that it has the capacity to impart essential skills to first-year students who are under-prepared for tertiary study.