Africa Education Review - Volume 1, Issue 1, 2004
Volume 1, Issue 1, 2004
Source: Africa Education Review 1, pp 3 –20 (2004)More Less
Many Africans regard the twenty-first century as the epoch of the rebirth or reawakening of the African continent. An African Renaissance is currently taking shape in the form of various initiatives (such as the creation of the New Partnership for Africa's Development) and of the structuring of organisations (such as the African Union). Teacher education in Africa cannot continue as in the past while all these initiatives are being taken. An agenda for the transformation of teacher education programmes in Africa is, therefore, proposed. Respect for the dignity of the human being, which is a feature of African philosophical anthropology for as long as human memory serves, forms the cornerstone of this agenda.
Sport for all in postcolony : is there a place for indigenous games in physical education curriculum and research in Africa?Author Jimoh ShehuSource: Africa Education Review 1, pp 21 –33 (2004)More Less
The sport-for-all movement currently evident in many countries of the world is often touted as a self-evidently desirable means of achieving physical fitness on a global scale. But is sport truly a veritable route to collective wellbeing or some fantastic aggrandisement of a Western canon? This article challenges the cherished myth that sport is essentially meant for all regardless of context. The discursive background of sport for all was viewed through the lens of political economic relations and the dominant discourse of recreation and leisure. To be sure, sport for all has the ring of commonsense viewed from the North, yet it has a different resonance when examined from the South: it is a big, staggering plot to repress and diminish the cultural significance of the indigenous games of Third World people. This article takes stock of the lessons from the Dar es Salaam Sport for All project and stresses the need for African countries to resist any homogenising sport discourses premised against the reclamation of discursively constituted local games and indigenous physical education pedagogy. It argues that precolonial African games need not be uprooted from the physical education curriculum for colonial sports to roost, as these games have locus standi where Western sports stand. It suggests the need for deconstructive discourses that are conducive to the renovation and institution of indigenous African games as a step towards maintaining cultural distinctiveness and deconstructing totalising images of physical education curriculum content.
Author Yusef WaghidSource: Africa Education Review 1, pp 34 –45 (2004)More Less
This article explores the notion of an African(a) philosophy of education and its implications for university teaching in South Africa. African(a) philosophy of education brings into sharper focus the need to reconceptualise university teaching in South Africa, particularly along the lines of deliberative inquiry. This article examines constitutive meanings of African(a) philosophy of education and what it means for teachers both to be deliberative and to cultivate deliberation.
Author S.G. PretoriusSource: Africa Education Review 1, pp 46 –64 (2004)More Less
Many education systems worldwide have undergone major reforms over the last two decades or more. Educational reform cannot take place without major consequences for teacher education. This article focuses on the way teacher education has responded to education reform in two countries, namely the United States of America and England. In the former, the reform efforts were widespread but each endeavour was guided by different priorities. In particular, the trend towards Professional Development Schools has been viewed as encouraging but ultimately their success must be measured by longitudinal research over a period of time. In England the reform movement can be described as a shift towards school-based training of teachers with schools as the lead partners in educating novice teachers. The experience of these countries has particular relevance for the South African education system. It shows that what is needed is a revitalisation of research on teacher education. Successful teacher education institutions and programmes share distinct features, inter alia, a clear shared vision of good teaching, well-defined standards of practice and performance, intensively supervised practical experiences, and strong relationships between training institutions and reformminded local schools.
Factors influencing the participation of undergraduate students from sub-Saharan Africa in higher education in the United States of AmericaSource: Africa Education Review 1, pp 65 –80 (2004)More Less
This article reports on factors influencing the participation of undergraduate students from sub-Saharan Africa in higher education in the United States of America (US). A literature study investigated aspects of undergraduate study in the US as applied to international students. The policy of the US government and of individual institutions of higher education toward the enrolment of international students, its benefits and procedures for application are outlined. Against this background, an empirical investigation comprising two surveys, which produced descriptive statistical data, was undertaken. Data were gathered by means of two separate questionnaires from a stratified random sample of two-year and four-year private and public colleges in the US as well as from the population of Educational Advising Centers in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings indicated that the primary constraints faced by undergraduate Sub-Saharan African students relate to a lack of funding, an inability to access information and the application process. Based on these findings, brief recommendations to improve practice are suggested.
Author G.M. SteynSource: Africa Education Review 1, pp 81 –94 (2004)More Less
Beginner educators cannot produce their best work and achieve the objectives of the schools that employed them until they have adjusted to the work they are required to do, the environment in which they are to work and the colleagues and learners with whom they have to work. However, it is well known that the transition from student educator to newly qualified educator can be problematic. The best way of supporting and developing novice educators is a clear understanding of their problems and constructive induction programmes that train and sustain them by addressing these issues. The article therefore focuses on the plight of, and support for, beginner educators. It addresses two questions. First, what are the needs and concerns of beginner educators? Second, what strategies can be offered to support beginner educators that will ease their transition into the classroom and reduce attrition early in their careers?
Source: Africa Education Review 1, pp 95 –112 (2004)More Less
This article focuses on decentralisation of financial control as a strategy used to develop school-based management (SBM) and improve performance. SBM is a management mechanism aimed at improving schools by shifting decision-making powers regarding the budget from the central level to the schools (Raywind 1990, 142). The article examines the role of the state in decentralisation by exploring the current South African education policy on this aspect of educational reform as expressed through the Norms and standards for school funding (RSA 1998). The policy was designed in response to the demands for educational reform and restructuring initiatives.
A common feature in the implementation of this policy is the devolution of decision-making authority over the management of resources to schools. This includes devolution of state-allocated budgets and delegation of financial management responsibilities to school-based financial management structures through the district as a primary education service delivery system for the state. To assist both the district and the school in carrying out their responsibilities, a model for school-based financial management is presented in this article.
Author S. MaileSource: Africa Education Review 1, pp 113 –127 (2004)More Less
It is commonly held that when one has disclosed one's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status to an official, the official is bound by principles of confidentiality not to disclose this information to other parties. In this article, I argue that while it is important to maintain confidentiality on the disclosure of HIV, there is a limitation to this confidentiality. The information may be legally passed on to other particular persons under procedures prescribed by law and policy. In this article arguments are drawn from a literature study and an empirical investigation. The empirical investigation was conducted through the medium of an authentic case study, but was constructed hypothetically on a critical incident of HIV / AIDS in the school context. The school governing bodies (SGBs) were asked to respond to the case in terms of the actions they would take should such an event occur in the schools. SGBs of five schools were interviewed. This research clarifies the levels of understanding of HIV / AIDS legislation and policy and the practices likely to arise from such understandings in South African public schools. The findings amplify the distance between policy and practice and the need for vigilance with respect to legal challenges that schools might face without adequate knowledge of, and information on, the pandemic.
Source: Africa Education Review 1, pp 128 –146 (2004)More Less
Worldwide, research shows that it is not easy to educate children from poor environments. Poor literacy achievement and poverty tend to go hand in hand. In developing countries, where education tends to be characterised by inequalities and disadvantage, there is a dire need to explore ways of boosting literacy levels in highpoverty schools. This article examines the effects of an out-of-school literacy enrichment programme on the literacy skills of Grades 1 and 4 learners at five disadvantaged schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal. A brief overview is given of the Family Literacy Project of which this study was a component, followed by the methodological details concerning the materials and procedures used in the assessment of the Grade 1 (Zulu) and Grade 4 (Zulu and English) learners' literacy skills. The learners' literacy performance is compared with those of learners who had not been in the programme. The findings indicate that greater exposure to literacy activities such as storybook reading in Zulu had a discernible impact on the learners' literacy accomplishments. The article concludes by identifying some educational implications that follow from the findings.
The relation between perceptual development (as part of school readiness) and school success of Grade I learnersAuthor Erna Van ZylSource: Africa Education Review 1, pp 147 –159 (2004)More Less
As we move into the twenty-first century, an issue such as the prerequisites for school success (readiness) comes to the fore. The following questions like the following may be asked: What role does perception play in Grade 1 children's school success? Is perceptual development something that children need for school success?
The aim of this research is to verify whether perceptual development (as part of school readiness) has any influence on the child's school success.
A Pearson correlation analysis indicated a highly significant correlation between most of the perceptual development modes, related subjects and performance on literacy and numeracy.
In the light of the above-mentioned, it can be assumed that issues such as perceptual development (as part of school readiness) will always have a significant effect on the school success (performance) of Grade 1 children. Certain basic steps have to be developed before perception can take place, and which may obviate future perceptual problems. The child's sensory integration must first be developed before the perceptual modalities will be in place. The lack of development of sensory integration could result in otherwise bright learners having problems in school in terms of learning and behaviour.
Pearson correlation analyses indicate a highly significant correlation between most of the perceptual development modes, related subjects and performance in literacy and numeracy. The relation between the senses, sensory integration, perception and learning (school success) can be seen as steps in a developmental process. There is a certain sequence in which a child's development must take place. The first step in this sequence forms the foundation for the second step and so on. If the foundation is not laid properly, the steps that follow can also not be developed to the full.
In the light of this, it can be assumed that issues such as perceptual development (as part of school readiness) will always have a significant effect on the school success (performance) of Grade 1 children.