Educare - Volume 31, Issue 1_2, 2002
Volume 31, Issue 1_2, 2002
Source: Educare 31 (2002)More Less
The variety of articles in this the thirty-first volume of EDUCARE is indicative of the central role being played or which should be played by education in a twenty-first-century country. Consideration of issues such as democracy, peace and gender as related to education reflects the concerns of such a country. From a more educationally focused approach adolescence, religious education, principalship, motivation, language development, Greek education, stress-related problems and the teaching of specific school subjects complete this presentation of articles. The editorial policy is to publish research and review articles about issues relevant to the theory and practice of any field of education.
Education for peace : description, conceptualisation and evaluation of a programme to reduce conflict among the youthAuthor M. Elizabeth SmitSource: Educare 31, pp 16 –37 (2002)More Less
Although peace education is gaining considerable popularity on the African continent,very little research on its effectiveness has been conducted. Providers are under increasing pressure to demonstrate that their programmes work. Few of these programmes have been formally evaluated. A programme was implemented and evaluated at three desegregated secondary schools in South Africa where racial conflict prevailed. The subjects that were chosen were Grade 11 pupils. These pupils were chosen because of their ability to be able to be more likely to express their views in a more articulate and comprehensible manner than younger pupils. Hence, two classes of about 30 pupils were selected from each school and 12 teachers. During the implementation phase of the research project the East Side Programme was introduced.Useful data were collected covering issues of friendships, racial mixing, tolerance,understanding, stereotypes, enlightment and empowerment. The research report aims to present and validate a theoretical model for analyzing conflict resolution programmes that may assist in future intervention programmes which provide young people with new ways to respond to conflict. The model presented here integrated different theoretical approaches to conflict in the evaluation methodology.
Author E.M. LemmerSource: Educare 31, pp 38 –62 (2002)More Less
Language is a crucial means of gaining access to important knowledge and skills and thus determines academic achievement. For this reason, language diversity has a powerful influence on the outcomes of schooling in a multicultural society. Attrition rates among linguistically diverse school populations worldwide show that learners with a limited proficiency in the language of learning are most at risk of underachievement. This article deals with theories of first and second language acquisition and the implications for classroom practice in multicultural schools. Attention is given to Cummin's model of second language acquisition and the notions of additive and subtractive bilingualism. Guidelines are suggested for creating a school environment which fosters language learning. Strategies for school leadership, classroom teaching, parent involvement and teacher development are provided.
Author M.M. NiemanSource: Educare 31, pp 63 –81 (2002)More Less
Gender roles of both men and women have changed considerably during the past decade. These changes were caused, on the one hand, by a new political dispensation, where equal opportunities for all and the elimination of discriminatory practices in all spheres of life are being sought and by changing social conditions, such as women joining the labour force, on the other. Learners have to be prepared for fulfilling their gender role, as adults, in these changing circumstances. Reading has a major influence on young people's formation of their gender identity. The choice of texts and the way these texts are presented in the classroom should, therefore, be done very carefully, as stereotyping, sexism and biases in texts may be regarded by learners as acceptable and worthy of emulation if their attention is not focused specifically on these misrepresentations.
The article concludes with recommendations on the choice of texts, compilation of reading lists and teaching strategies for gender-sensitive literary teaching.
Source: Educare 31, pp 82 –101 (2002)More Less
For various reasons educator morale and motivation have been the focus of considerable attention. Several factors have been attributed as underlying causes of low morale and poor motivation among staff in the teaching profession. If educator performance in schools is to be improved, it is necessary to pay attention to the kind of work environment that enhances educators' sense of professionalism and increases their morale and motivation. A distinction is made between the motivation and the morale of individuals. This article briefly outlines the factors identified in studies that influence the morale and motivation of educators. Attention is also paid to models of motivation which have been developed to understand the motivation of staff. These models provide the foundation on which a general model for motivation can be developed that serves as a means to understand the motivation process.
Source: Educare 31, pp 102 –122 (2002)More Less
Catholic schools have made a significant contribution to education provision in Lebanon for centuries. In contemporary times these schools are called on to provide academic excellence while aiding in the restructuring process of Lebanese society. This mission was even more crucial during the Lebanese post war phase (after 1990). This article gives an overview of the school system in Lebanon as a background to the role, organisation and structure of Catholic schools. The article identifies the motives that shape the educational role that the Catholic church has played in schooling in a multi-faith society. In particular, the role and task of the Catholic school focuses on its unique spiritual and moral dimension.
Self-reliance and self-sufficiency as the key principles in the Swiss Missionaries' transformative efforts (1873-1968)Source: Educare 31, pp 123 –138 (2002)More Less
The Swiss missionaries came to Southern Africa as experts in key areas of life. They were determined to impart the knowledge gained in Europe to the indigenous populace who were perceived to be backward, indolent and virtually unable to do anything worthwhile for themselves. Like other clerics labouring elsewhere in Africa, the men and women from Switzerland concentrated their efforts on education, religion and health. Africans had their own religion, education and health systems. But all these had to be supplanted by Western value systems. Schools, churches and hospitals were established in all the areas conquered for Jesus Christ. These institutions were complementing each other in implanting the Christian religion into the hearts and minds of the African proselytes. The Swiss Missionary Society's Lemana Training Institution was the nerve-centre of the French-speaking Swiss clerics' transformative efforts assisted by a host of primary schools and three nursing colleges. Where training facilities were non-existent, the clergy arranged for exchange programs with other missions because evangelisation was essentially a joint venture.
Individual and community needs in education : a historical-exemplaric view of ancient Greek educationAuthor Andrew LewisSource: Educare 31, pp 139 –152 (2002)More Less
One of the aims of education is to fulfil the needs of both the individual and the community. In South Africa this has been, and still remains, a burning issue. History has shown that South Africa is not unique regarding the challenge of striking a balance between the fulfilment of needs of the individual and the community. Ancient Greek education, for example, also grappled with these problems. It is therefore the aim of this article to highlight two examples of ancient Greek education, namely that of Sparta and Athens, to show what emphasis was placed on either the needs of the individual or the community. In the light of the conclusions drawn from this analysis, certain recommendations for educational practitioners and researchers are also made.
Source: Educare 31, pp 153 –174 (2002)More Less
This article reports on an intervention programme that promotes the study of Physical Science by secondary school learners. The programme is based on learner variables (achievement, self-concept and view of Physical Science as a valuable subject) and teacher variables, namely, teaching methods (demonstrations and co-operative learning) and acting as appropriate role models. To test the programme, a questionnaire was administered as a pre-test and post-test to two groups of black Grade 9 learners from two similar schools, respectively. The first group was the experimental group where the programme was implemented for a semester. The second group was a comparison group that was not exposed to the programme. Significant differences between the two groups indicate that if the study of Physical Science is to be promoted at school, appropriate strategies that improve self-concept and achievement and effective teaching methods need to be used regularly by science teachers. The above-mentioned research also raised a number of meaningful questions.
Source: Educare 31, pp 175 –201 (2002)More Less
The dawn of democracy in South Africa in 1994 necessitated innovations in education. An educational approach known as Outcomes-based Education (OBE) was introduced in 1998. Many changes will eventually also have to be made in the History classroom, as the new approach is characterised by a competency-based, interactive and learner-centred methodology. Closer scrutiny of the above educational innovation reveals the existence of a number of problems.The aim of this article is: Firstly, to sensitise the curriculum developers and educational administrators, who are involved in the revamping of History as a school subject, to the need to gain independent and well-reasoned knowledge of some of the issues involved in outcomes-based History teaching, because such informed knowledge is an essential element in the successful implementation of the latter in South African public schools. Secondly, to be proactive and to assist in the retraining of History educators so that they will be able to teach outcomes-based History with success in their classrooms when it is implemented in public schools.
Source: Educare 31, pp 202 –218 (2002)More Less
Stress is a human phenomenon experienced readily but differently by adolescents. Adults tend to forget this and approach adolescent stress the same way as they approach their own experience of stress. Therefore, the aim of this article is, firstly, to discuss the phenomenon of stress specifically concerning adolescents and, secondly, to suggest guidelines on how to deal with adolescent stress by parents, teachers and educational psychologists.
Author S.M. HobergSource: Educare 31, pp 219 –235 (2002)More Less
Alcohol abuse among school-going adolescents is currently a growing concern.Adolescent alcohol abuse and binge drinking is often the precursor to more serious forms of substance abuse, such as the smoking of dagga (Cannabis), or a mixture of dagga and finely crushed Mandrax smoked in a pipe, and the usage of other drugs, such as LSD and even heroin. Research stresses that the seriousness of school-going adolescent alcohol abuse is often overlooked and its serious consequences are not adequately recognised. Adolescent alcohol abuse is at a record level, with treatment centres countrywide reporting unprecedented numbers of adolescents seeking help. This article contends that while adolescent alcohol abuse and binge drinking does not occur during school hours at school, it is still the responsibility of the school in a collaborative effort with parents to implement preventative strategies at school level. The qualitative research in this article examines the issue of adolescent alcohol abuse. A case study design in qualitative research is used to probe the life-world of the adolescent alcohol abuser. Finally, the findings of the research project are presented together with recommendations and suggestions for further research.
Source: Educare 31, pp 236 –250 (2002)More Less
Inclusive education is becoming a reality in South Africa with the result that teachers who are not trained to teach learners with special needs have to face a new challenge. They are not only challenged by greater numbers in their classes but also with learners with different barriers to learning, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The educators are in need of knowledge about specific problems learners with ADHD experience, and aid to the educators to cope with various problems in the classroom becomes very important.
Three types of behaviour are manifested by ADHD learners, namely inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. This article provides educators with examples of possible behaviour of learners with ADHD in the classroom to assist them in identifying these learners. Identification is the first step in aiding the learner with ADHD as knowledge of the learner with ADHD and the problems experienced by them may contribute to a more positive attitude on the teachers' side.
Source: Educare 31, pp 251 –274 (2002)More Less
A current international trend in education reform is the devolution of decision-making powers from central level to the school level. Together with certain structural reforms regarding shared decision-making, the South African government has also initiated programmes of curriculum reform, and a general drive to improve the culture of teaching and learning in schools. The devolution of authority through decentralisation is the first dimension of school-based management. The second dimension of school-based management refers to the participation of stakeholders. The key changes in the way schools in South Africa are organised with regard to the role of principals are outlined in this article. Two reform initiatives, whole school evaluation and developmental appraisal are briefly described. The article concludes with a model for management of resistance to change.