The usual function of floral nectaries in plants is to attract and reward pollinators, while extra-floral (foliar) nectaries function in the defence of the plant, attracting ants and other insects that can act as bodyguards (Beattie 1985). In a few plants these functions have been reversed, with floral nectar used to attract bodyguards (Dominguez et al. 1989) or foliar nectar used to attract pollinators, Poinsettias, Euphorbia pulcherimma L. are a well-known example (Thorp & Sugden 1990).
It is with great sadness that the Entomological Society heard of the passing of Prof. Graeme Whitehead, one of the stalwarts of our Society. Graeme Whitehead was a true son and gentleman of the Eastern Cape. He was raised on a farm near Queenstown, where he learned to speak Xhosa at an early age. Graeme matriculated from the famous Queens College in Queenstown in 1941 and proceeded to Rhodes University in Grahamstown, another world-renowned Eastern Cape educational institution.
Dung beetles (Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Scarabaeinae) play a fundamental role in African ecosystems and have become a focus for many ecological studies. South Africa is a leading country in this respect, with an established research centre in Pretoria.