n African Entomology - The relationship between female pupal mass and fecundity of Gratiana spadicea (Klug, 1829) (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) : short communication
|Article Title||The relationship between female pupal mass and fecundity of Gratiana spadicea (Klug, 1829) (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) : short communication|
|© Publisher:||Entomological Society of South Africa (ESSA)|
|Author||K. Czypionka and M.P. Hill|
|Publication Date||Sep 2007|
|Pages||380 - 382|
In the early 1900s Solanum sisymbriifolium Lamarck (Solanaceae), commonly known as dense thorned bitter apple and previously referred to as wild tomato, was introduced into southern Africa and has since become an invasive weed (Hill & Hulley 1995, 1996). In 1994 a chrysomelid beetle, Gratiana spadicea (Klug, 1829) (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae), was introduced as a biological control agent against the weed (Hill & Hulley 1995). Prior to its release, various specificity tests were conducted to identify the potential host range of this agent. These included larval survival and adult choice and no-choice tests on several native and commercial Solanum species. These specificity tests generally identify the potential host range of an agent accurately, but fail to predict the magnitude of non-target risks in the field (Wan & Harris 1997; Louda et al. 2003).
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