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n African Entomology - Biological control of Schrad. & J.C. Wendl. and (Sm.) Cav. (Proteaceae) in South Africa

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Abstract

Schrad. & J.C.Wendl. and (Sm.) Cav. (Proteaceae), are small trees or shrubs that originate from Australia. has become highly invasive and problematic in South Africa while is less widespread and abundant but nevertheless problematic. Biological control against started in 1970 with the release of two seed-attacking insects, a seed-feeding weevil, Pascoe (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and a seed-moth, Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae). Both of these agents, together with an indigenous fungus, J.H. Simmonds f.sp. Lubbe, Denman, P.F. Cannon, J.Z. Groenew., Lampr. & Crous (Incertae sedis: Glomerellaceae), and manual clearing have reduced the abundance, and possibly the invasiveness, of , but large infestations still persist in the coastal mountains of the Cape Floral Region in the Western and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa. The release in 1979 of a weevil, Lea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which bores in the terminal shoots and young needles of H. sericea has had a negligible effect. To enhance the levels of biological control, two new agents, a stem-boring beetle, (Boisduval) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and a flower bud feeder, Blackburn (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were released in 2001 and 2006, respectively. The focus in this review is on progress since 1999 with the biological control and management of . Releases of and on have met with limited success, the reasons for which are also reviewed.

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/content/ento/19/1/EJC32912
2011-03-01
2016-12-08
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