n African Entomology - Development of the oleander mealybug, Paracoccus burnerae (Brain) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on citrus at five temperatures : research article
|Article Title||Development of the oleander mealybug, Paracoccus burnerae (Brain) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on citrus at five temperatures : research article|
|© Publisher:||Entomological Society of South Africa (ESSA)|
|Affiliations||1 University of Stellenbosch and 2 University of Stellenbosch|
|Publication Date||Sep 2011|
|Pages||641 - 649|
|Keyword(s)||Degree-days, Developmental rate, Fecundity, Instar, Lower developmental threshold, Survival and Thermal constant|
The effect of constant temperatures on the development, survival and fecundity of the oleander mealybug, Paracoccus burnerae, on citrus was determined. Developmental time, rate of development, fecundity and survival were investigated at five constant temperatures and a 16L:8D light:dark regime. The rate of development increased linearly with an increase in temperature for the egg, first nymphal and pupal stages as well as the entire development cycle from egg to adult, but was nonlinear for the second and third nymphal stages. Survival decreased with increase in temperature. Paracoccus burnerae required 666.7 degree-days above a lower threshold of 8.7 °C to complete one generation. The highest mean number of 68 eggs per female was recorded at 22 °C. A sex ratio of 1:0.92 (male:female) was obtained from the life table. The net reproductive rate (Ro) was >1 at all five temperatures, an indication that it is capable of increasing its population numbers despite the high mortality experienced in the first and second nymphal stages.
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