n African Entomology - Compatibility of biological control agents and agrochemicals to entomopathogenic nematodes, and




The compatibility of two endemic entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) with biological control agents and agro-chemicals, likely to be used in an integrated pest management programme for citrus in South Africa was investigated. This is the first report on the possible negative effect of EPNs against , a commercially produced biocontrol predatory insect, used against mealybugs. Bioassays were conducted to determine the susceptibility of the mealybug predatory coccinellid beetle, , to both nematode species. Results showed the beetle larvae to be highly susceptible to a concentration of 80 IJ/insect of and , obtaining 80% and 92% mortality, respectively. Adult beetles were found to be twice as susceptible to with 64% mortality, as to with 30% mortality recorded. Tolerance of both species of infective juveniles to aqueous solutions of Cyperfos 500 EC®, Cryptogran™, Helicovir™, Nu-Film-P® and Zeba®, for infectivity and survival was evaluated. proved to be highly compatible to all products tested, with no significant increase in nematode mortality. The formulations also did not affect the ability of to infect , after exposure to products over a 24-h period. Significant increase in mortality of was recorded after 12 hours of exposure to Nu-Film-P® and Cyperfos 500 EC®, and after 6 hours of exposure to Nu-Film-P®. However, results for infectivity showed no decrease in the ability of the nematodes to infect insect hosts. Results indicated that nematodes should possibly be applied before the release of in citrus orchards.


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