African Entomology - Volume 22, Issue 1, 2014
Volumes & issues
Volume 22, Issue 1, 2014
Determination of genetic diversity in Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) associated with alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., in two Egyptian oases, using RAPD-PCRSource: African Entomology 22, pp 197 –203 (2014)More Less
A survey of Coccinella septumpunctata on alfalfa Medicago sativa L. was carried out during spring in 2013 at Farafra and Bahariya Oases in Egypt. Insects were collected from six different regions located in the two oases. Genetic diversity within the species was accessed by using five RAPD markers. A total of 55 fragments were amplified, of which 48 fragments were polymorphic showing 87.3 % polymorphism. The number of amplification products ranged from nine to 15 with an average of 12 per primer. The maximum of polymorphic bands (15 bands) belonged to K15 primer, whereas the minimum of polymorphic bands (7 bands) belonged to C15 primer. Genetic characterization was done with the help of similarity matrix. The similarity of DNA bands ranged from 0.578 to 0.774.
Assessment of toxic baits for the control of the samsum ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Formicidae: Ponerinae)Source: African Entomology 22, pp 204 –209 (2014)More Less
The use of synthetic organic pesticides has serious economic, social and environmental ramifications. Thus, this study describes the experiments using botanical and bacterial extracts to control the samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis). This ant is widely distributed in many parts of southern Saudi Arabia, and has been established as a household pest ant. Three Saudi plants, harmal (Rhaza stricta), boxthorn (Lycium shawii) and artemisia (Artemisia inculta) and two bacterial extracts, Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis and Streptomyces sp. were tested in a minced meat bait against the workers of samsum ant. Among the plant extracts tested, at a concentration of 0.3mg of the plant extract of boxthorn per gram of food exhibited the highest toxicity to samsum ants, causing 20.30 % mortality per day and 100 % average death rate of all the ants in 4.9 days. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the bacterial extract of Streptomyces sp. was the most effective agent to control these ants, with the average death rate at 30 ants per day at a concentration of 0.3 mg/g food.
The effect of sap-sucking by Falconia intermedia (Hemiptera: Miridae) on the emission of volatile organic compounds from the leaves of Lantana camara varieties : short communicationSource: African Entomology 22, pp 210 –213 (2014)More Less
Evidence from more than 100 plant species has confirmed that plants emit volatile organic chemicals (VOC) in response to herbivory (Karban & Baldwin 1997; Dicke et al. 2003; Arimura et al. 2005). Feeding-induced plant responses may result in higher levels of volatiles, and different bouquets of compounds being emitted by plants following herbivore damage (Wei et al. 2006). The emission of volatile chemicals may be beneficial to plants in two ways; undamaged plants may interpret the chemical signals from damaged plants and in turn prime themselves for defence (Arimura et al. 2000; Dicke et al. 2003; Agrawal 2005), or volatiles emitted by damaged plants may attract natural enemies of the herbivores, which may reduce further damage to the plants (Tumlinson et al. 1993; De Moraes et al. 1998; Dicke & Vet 1999).
First report of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) from South Africa : short communicationSource: African Entomology 22, pp 214 –215 (2014)More Less
In August 2010, Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) was reared from a sample of the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), which was collected in the field on Malva parviflora L. (Malvaceae) at the Experimental Farmof the University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa (25°45'03.6"S 28°15'28.9"E). This is the first record of this parasitoid from South Africa. Voucher specimens are deposited in the South African National Collection of Insects, ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria (ARC-PPRI; accession numbers AcP 9504-AcP 9509).
An improved larval diet for commercial mass rearing of the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) : short communicationSource: African Entomology 22, pp 216 –219 (2014)More Less
False codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa (Newton 1998). It is a pest of citrus (Newton 1998), stone fruit (Daiber 1978), macadamias (La Croix & Thindwa 1986), avocados (Erichsen & Schoeman 1992) and various other agricultural crops. All available control methods were recently reviewed by Moore & Hattingh (2012). Included amongst these is the use of granulovirus (Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV)) sprays, inundative releases of egg parasitoids and the sterile insect technique (SIT). All of these require production of large numbers of T. leucotreta. CrleGV and the egg parasitoid, Trichogrammatoidea cryptophlebiae (Nagaraja) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), are produced in vivo (Moore et al. 2011) and for SIT, the sterilized adult male moth is the product (Hofmeyr et al. 2005).
Rapid range expansion of the invasive wasp Polistes dominula (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) and first record of parasitoids on this species and the native Polistes marginalis in the Western Cape Province of South Africa : short communicationSource: African Entomology 22, pp 220 –225 (2014)More Less
Invasive organisms are one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity (Pimentel et al. 2000; Rands et al. 2010). Considerable efforts have been made towards understanding of the processes driving invasion success which is essential when devising management strategies to limit the spread and impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) (Kolar & Lodge 2001). The success of IAS (animal species in particular) in novel regions is often attributed to the absence of natural enemies and a subsequent decrease in population regulation (Liebert et al. 2006), a phenomenon referred to as the enemy release hypothesis (Jeffries & Lawton 1984). As a result, biological control initiatives are largely geared to reconnect IAS with their natural predators and parasites (Irvin & Hoddle 2010). Unfortunately this necessitates the release of yet another alien organism (Veldtman et al. 2011).
New records of the parasitic wasp Dinocampus coccinellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its hosts in South Africa : short communicationSource: African Entomology 22, pp 226 –229 (2014)More Less
Dinocampus coccinellae Schrank (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid of ladybird beetle species (Coccinellidae) from the subfamily Coccinellinae (Obrycki 1989; Majerus 1997). The wasp has a cosmopolitan distribution, encompassing all continents except for Antarctica, and mostly occupying the Holarctic temperate areas with the exception of several southern hemisphere countries (Ceryngier et al. 2012). It is known to parasitize at least 55 host species, mainly from Eurasia, Great Britain and North America (Majerus 1997; Yu et al. 2011).
Source: African Entomology 22, pp 230 –231 (2014)More Less
Effects of seed availability on egg distribution patterns and larval survival in Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), a seed-feeding biological control agent of Leucaena leucocephala (Fabaceae) in South Africa, African Entomology 21(2) 2013 : pp. 377-382 : erratumSource: African Entomology 22 (2014)More Less
Effects of seed availability on egg distribution patterns and larval survival in Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), a seed-feeding biological control agent of Leucaena leucocephala (Fabaceae) in South Africa, African Entomology 21(2) 2013 : pp. 377-382
Pathogenicity, yield and DNA genome pattern of the entomopathogenic virus Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) to Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) under the impact of environmental stress, African Entomology 21 (2) 2013 : pp. 221-230 : erratumSource: African Entomology 22 (2014)More Less