African Entomology - Volume 22, Issue 3, 2014
Volumes & issues
Volume 22, Issue 3, 2014
Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the subgenera Anopheles and Cellia (Diptera: Culicidae) based on nuclear ribosomal sequencesSource: African Entomology 22, pp 660 –669 (2014)More Less
Phylogenetic relationships among the subgenera Anopheles and Cellia were inferred from the D2 (36 species) and D3 (57 species) fragments of the 28S ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The resultant molecular phylogeny matched the classical morphological taxonomy reasonably well, and also resolved some ambiguities in the morphological taxonomy. Although a molecular phylogeny based on the D2 region did not change the traditional morphological character-based arrangement of anopheline taxa, some differences from the traditional arrangement were apparent in a phylogeny based on D3 fragment variation. This could, however, be due to the shorter length of the D3 fragment used in this study. Both the D2 and D3 data support the view that the subgenus Anopheles and the Neomyzomyia series are basal to the subgenus Cellia. The D2 data suggest a sister-group composed of Neocellia + (Myzomyia + Pyretophorus). The topology of the tree based on D2 variation supports the monophyly of all four series of the subgenus Cellia. In addition, the tree based on D3 variation suggests that the Neomyzomyia series is monophyletic, but additional species are required to support both these hypotheses. This kind of molecular approach, in combination with the existing morphological taxonomy, could help to resolve phylogenetic relationships among the anopheline mosquitoes.
First record of the lace bug Cochlochila bullita (Hemiptera: Tingidae) as a pest of rosemary in South Africa : short communicationAuthor J.H. GiliomeeSource: African Entomology 22, pp 670 –672 (2014)More Less
The lace bug Cochlochila bullita Stål (Hemiptera: Tingidae) (Fig. 1) was recently observed for the first time feeding in large numbers on rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) in home gardens in Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province. It is mostly known as a pest in the Oriental Region where it feeds on many different species of the plant family Lamiaceae (Kumar 2013). In India it is a particularly destructive pest of aromatic and medicinal plants of the genus Ocimum. These plants are commonly known as 'basil', with O. basilicum and O. sanctum the most widely distributed species (Kumar 2013). It sucks the cell sap from the leaves, causing them to curl, dry and drop off. In Malaysia similar damage, as well as wilting of tender shoots, was observed on Orthosiphon stamineus, a plant used for making herbal tea (Sajab & Peng 2010). Stonedahl et al. (1992) and Deckert & Göllner-Scheiding (2006) also mention R. officinalis (rosemary) and Salvia coccinia (sage) as hosts.
New records of insect pest species associated with cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), in Guinea-Bissau : short communicationSource: African Entomology 22, pp 673 –677 (2014)More Less
The cashew tree, Anacardium occidentale L., is a small to medium-sized evergreen perennial native to northeast Brazil (Jaffee 1994; Asogwa et al. 2008). The species was introduced to distant regions such as India and East Africa as early as the 16th century (Malhotra 2008), and is now an important crop cultivated in tropical regions worldwide (Maruthadurai et al. 2012). Cashew is generally grown for its fruit, which has two connected parts: (i) the kidney-shaped nut containing the nutritious edible kernel, and (ii) the false fruit or cashew apple (the fleshy edible stalk) which can be eaten raw, used to make jam, juiced or fermented into wine (Jaffee 1994; Asogwa et al. 2008; Lundy 2012). The nut shell contains a corrosive liquid known as cashew nut shell liquid, which is widely used in automobile brake linings, paints, varnishes and insecticides, among others (Malhotra 2008).
Two new combinations in Thaumatotibia Zacher (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Réunion Island, with an updated list of the Afrotropical species : short communicationSource: African Entomology 22, pp 678 –680 (2014)More Less
Our knowledge of the Lepidoptera fauna of Réunion Island has grown tremendously over the last decade, nearly exclusively as a result of the diligent efforts of Christian Guillermet (e.g. 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2011, 2012). In 2006, Guillermet (2006) described three new species of Tortricidae from Réunion: Cryptophlebia colasi, C. destrumeli and C. gaetani, and provided the first records of seven additional microlepidoptera. The descriptions and illustrations of the new tortricids are complete (even though the illustrations of the genitalia of C. colasi and C. destrumeli are difficult to interpret because the valvae are not spread), and they provide evidence that the species should be assigned to genera other than Cryptophlebia. Guillermet (2011) subsequently recognized that C. gaetani was a synonym of Eccopsis praecedens Walsingham, 1897, which was reported from Réunion Island and illustrated by Aarvik (2005: fig. 11), and he made that correction. However, the other two species remaining in Cryptophlebia are assigned more appropriately to Thaumatotibia Zacher, 1915. The purpose of this note is to propose two new combinations, discuss the characters that support these generic reassignments, and provide an updated list of the Thaumatotibia of the Afrotropical Region.
Author D. ConlongSource: African Entomology 22, pp 681 –683 (2014)More Less