n African Entomology - Beauveria and Metarhizium against false codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) : a step towards selecting isolates for potential development of a mycoinsecticide : short communication
|Article Title||Beauveria and Metarhizium against false codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) : a step towards selecting isolates for potential development of a mycoinsecticide : short communication|
|© Publisher:||Entomological Society of South Africa (ESSA)|
|Affiliations||1 Rhodes University, 2 Rhodes University, 3 Rhodes University, 4 Rhodes University, 5 Rhodes University and 6 Citrus Research International|
|Publication Date||Mar 2015|
|Pages||239 - 242|
False codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta Meyrick (1912) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), can cause both pre- and post-harvest damage to citrus fruit. Not only can this result in reduced crop yield, but more importantly because of the moth's endemism to sub-Saharan Africa, it is classified as a phytosanitary pest by many export markets. An entire consignment of citrus may be rejected in the presence of a single moth (Moore 2012). Since the bulk of citrus fruit production in South Africa is exported, the control of T. leucotreta is critical (Citrus Growers Association, South Africa 2012). Traditionally, control has been achieved through the use of chemical insecticides; however, residue restrictions, resistance development and concerns about environmental pollution have substantially reduced the dependence on chemical pesticides in citrus. Research on T. leucotreta control has therefore focused on the use of biological organisms (e.g. parasitoids and viruses), which are used as control agents within an integrated pest management (IPM) programme in citrus. These biological control agents, however, only targeted the aboveground life stages of the pest, not the soil-dwelling life stages (late fifth instars, prepupae, pupae), which is the subject of this contribution (Moore 2012).
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