n African Entomology - Evaluation of above-ground application of entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of diapausing codling moth ( L.) under natural conditions

Volume 24, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1021-3589



In South Africa, after harvest and prior to the winter months, when the entire codling moth population enters diapause, no control measures are applied in apple and pear orchards. The biocontrol potential of three imported entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) isolates, being and two isolates of (Hb1, Hb2), as well as a local isolate, , were evaluated for the control of codling moth under local conditions. All concentrations of , applied by immersion in a suspension of nematodes, gave >98 % control. The in vivo-produced resulted in codling moth control of >90 %, compared to 54 % and 31 % control by the Hb1 and Hb2 isolates, respectively. In follow-up field trials, resulted in ≥80 % control, and was more effective than both the and the (Hb1) isolates. To validate the data obtained from the field trials, subsequent laboratory bioassays were conducted evaluating temperature regimes, following the same cycle as under natural conditions, with a constant humidity of 100 %. proved to be most effective, causing >90 % mortality, followed by , with 78 % mortality. The two isolates (Hb1, Hb2) under the above-mentioned laboratory conditions, resulted in 73 % and 59 % control, respectively. Humidity, thus, seems to be the most important factor affecting EPN efficacy during above-ground applications. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that will not be suitable for the control of codling moth, with proving to be a better candidate than for such control purposes.

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