African Entomology - Volume 24, Issue 1, 2016
Volumes & issues
Volume 24, Issue 1, 2016
Postharvest phytosanitary disinfestation of Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in citrus fruit: validation of an ionising radiation and cold combination treatmentSource: African Entomology 24, pp 217 –224 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4001/003.024.0217More Less
To overcome constraints on ionising radiation and cold treatment as stand-alone disinfestation treatments for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in citrus fruit, the efficacy of a combination treatment consisting of ionising radiation and cold, both at reduced doses, was tested at the probit-9 level. Earlier research indicated that combination treatments involving ionising radiation and cold suppressed larvae and their successive development stages more effectively than the individual treatments. The probit-9 level efficacy (at least 93 613 insects) of a treatment combination comprising 60 Gy of ionising radiation followed by cold exposure for 16 days at 2.5 °C was evaluated. A total of 104 617 mature, fifth instars was treated. Larval mortality was 99.7% and 50.2% of the subsequent pupae died. A total of 143 moths with a sex ratio of one female to 7.9 males eclosed. Only 4.8% of the moths were able to fly. No eggs were produced by the moths in mating studies. The probit-9 level efficacy of the combination treatment was validated, indicating that it meets the efficacy requirements for utilisation as a phytosanitary disinfestation treatment for T. leucotreta in citrus fruit in international trade.
Source: African Entomology 24, pp 225 –232 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4001/003.024.0225More Less
The Diptera family Ulidiidae or picture-winged flies known from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Six species in three genera are recognised, Ceroxys confusa (Becker), C. urticae (Linnaeus), Melieria nigritarsis Becker, M. omissa (Meigen) [Otitinae], Physiphora alceae (Preyssler), and P. smaragdina (Loew) [Ulidiinae]. Only M. nigritarsis and P. alceae were previously recorded from the Kingdom. The other four species, C. confusa, C. urticae, M. omissa, and P. smaragdina represent new country records. Additionally, the above records of Ceroxys are new for the Arabian Peninsula. Physiphora smaragdina (Loew) is known for most of Africa except South Africa. This is the third time this species is recorded outside Africa in addition to Israel and the United Arab Emirates. The Saudi Arabian genera and species are keyed and images are provided to facilitate identification.
Opogona scaphopis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tineidae: Hieroxestinae) causing serious damage to Gasteria and Haworthia at Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden, South Africa : short communicationsAuthor J.H. GiliomeeSource: African Entomology 24, pp 233 –235 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4001/003.024.0233More Less
Source: African Entomology 24, pp 236 –240 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4001/003.024.0236More Less
The immobilisation of mosquitoes for injection experiments is a requirement that must be achieved for the necessary time duration to complete the process. Unfortunately, the use of cold anaesthesia in hot tropical countries is not very effective and the use of CO2 anaesthesia requires continuous exposure, which can be harmful to the experimenter. To circumvent this problem we evaluated the use of triethylamine (FlyNap®) in the anaesthesia of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. FlyNap has been used widely in Drosophila studies, and is known to irreversibly anaesthetise mosquitoes. Very small volumes of the original FlyNap as well as different dilutions using absolute ethanol were evaluated to determine the dosage that will effectively anesthetise Anopheles gambiae female mosquitoes for the necessary duration. The results showed that the 1/10 FlyNap/absolute ethanol) dilution worked well and could be used for the anaesthesia.
Melanophila unicolor Gory, 1841 (Buprestidae), the furnace beetle, in southern Africa : short communicationsSource: African Entomology 24, pp 241 –244 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4001/003.024.0241More Less
Recently, large numbers of Melanophila unicolor Gory, 1841 were attracted to furnaces and cooling copper at a smelter at Tsumeb, Namibia, where the beetles are colloquially known as 'furnace-beetles'. The smelter is surrounded by indigenous savanna woodland. The beetles were alleged by workers to inflict a painful bite. Specimens were sent to us for identification; the results are reported in this communication.
Source: African Entomology 24, pp 245 –246 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4001/003.024.0245More Less
During a biodiversity survey of Monts Doudou in southwestern Gabon in February and March 2000 (Fisher 2004), a female whip spider (Amblypygi), Phrynichus exophthalmus Whittick, 1940, carrying her offspring was collected. It is the first record of this species from Gabon. The species is widespread in central Africa and has been recorded from Cameroon (type locality), the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, the Republic of Congo, Rwanda, and Tanzania (Weygoldt 1998; Harvey 2003).
New record of the invasive ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis in Afrotropical Region : Tanzania, Zanzibar : short communicationsSource: African Entomology 24, pp 247 –249 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4001/003.024.0247More Less
The alien invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was recorded from Tanzania, Zanzibar for the first time in 2014. This is in total the sixth country of this species in Africa and the second close to the equator. We suggest that repeated introductions may lead to new outbreaks of the species.
Notes on the pollinators of Frithia humilis Burgoyne, an endangered highveld succulent : short communicationsSource: African Entomology 24, pp 250 –256 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4001/003.024.0250More Less
Frithia humilis Burgoyne (Mesembryanthemaceae) is an endangered succulent plant species and grassland endemic restricted to the Rand Highveld Grassland vegetation type. Its distribution is limited to Ecca and Dwyka (Karoo Supergroup) sandstone outcrops, often overlying coal deposits, in the region between Bronkhorstspruit and eMalahleni. In 2009 a F. humilis population was discovered by mining personnel after a coal mining licence had already been granted. As mining activities were swiftly impinging the population, nature conservation agencies proposed that the population be shifted to a safe habitat. The translocation was required to safeguard the population from certain extinction due to mining activities(Burgoyne & Hoffman 2011). Translocation, or assisted colonisation, whereby populations of a species under threat are intentionally relocated to another suitable habitat, is generally regarded as a 'last resort' conservation measure (Gordon 1994; Godefroid et al. 2011) and was applied as such in the case of F. humilis.
Cytogenetic characterisation of Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) spermatocytes and its cytotaxonomic application : short communicationsSource: African Entomology 24, pp 257 –260 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4001/003.024.0257More Less
Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) was the first Triatominae species formally described, as Cimex rubrofasciatus De Geer, 1773. This insect presents anthropogenic habits (Galvão 2014) and is considered of global epidemiological importance, since it has a pantropical distribution and was found infected with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909) (Sherlock & Serafim 1974; Brazil & Silva 1983), the etiological agent of Chagas disease.
Analysis of metabolic activity in cystic cells of Triatoma rubrofasciata (Hemiptera: Triatominae) and its capacity to occupy different environments : short communicationsSource: African Entomology 24, pp 261 –264 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4001/003.024.0261More Less
Spermatogenesis is composed of three distinct phases: spermatocytogenesis, which is the proliferation phase; meiosis, which is the division phase; and spermiogenesis, which is the differentiation phase (Johnson et al. 1997).
In insects the spermatogenesis is cystic (Dumser 1980). In cystic spermatogenesis, the meiotic divisions are synchronous within a given cyst (Smith 1916). This phenomenon has been confirmed in the subfamily Triatominae (Silistino-Souza et al. 2011; Alevi et al. 2015).