oa African Entomology - Citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Swaziland develop tolerance to tartar emetic bait
|Article Title||Citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Swaziland develop tolerance to tartar emetic bait|
|© Publisher:||Entomological Society of South Africa (ESSA)|
|Affiliations||1 *Outspan Citrus Centre, Nelspruit **lnyoni Yami Swaziland Irrigation Scheme, Tshaneni|
|Publication Date||Jan 1996|
|Pages||15 - 20|
|Keyword(s)||Integrated pest management, Resistance, Scirtothrips aurantii and Tartar emetic|
Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips aurantii Faure, could not be controlled with tartar emetic baits on citrus at Inyoni Yami Swaziland Irrigation Scheme, Tshaneni in Swaziland during 1994. In most evaluations the efficacy of tartar emetic (0.199 or 0.398 % active ingredient (a.i.)) plus sugar (0.2 or 0.4 % mass per volume (m/v)) in three orchard experiments was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from untreated controls. In two bioassays conducted on citrus thrips larvae that survived a tartar emetic bait spray in two different orchards, only 37 % mortality resulted from exposure to tartar emetic residues (0.199 % a.i.) plus sugar (0.2 % m/v)) for 24 hours. Similar bioassays conducted with larvae that had not been exposed to tartar emetic for 32 and 97 days, however, yielded mortalities of 85 % and 97 % respectively. This indicates a rapid reversion to susceptibility in the absence of pesticide selection. A resistance management strategy of rotating plant protection products should provide effective control.
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