African Entomology - Volume 5, Issue 1, 1997
Volumes & issues
Volume 5, Issue 1, 1997
Source: African Entomology 5, pp 1 –18 (1997)More Less
The Campanotus fulvapilosus species-group comprises four species: C. fulvopilosus (De Geer) (arid and open savanna areas of southern Africa), C. brevisetosus Forel (granite outcrops on the Drakensberg escarpment and its foothills), C. detritus Emery (dunes of the Namib Desert) and C. storeatus Forel (southern Cape). A key to major workers and queens is provided, redescriptionptions are provided for major workers, and the biology of each species is reviewed. Campanotus fulvopilosus comprises three morphological forms that are parapatrically distributed with discernible hybrid zones. The evolution of the four species is discussed on the basis of their biogeography.
The honeybees, Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae), of woodland savanna of southeastern AfricaSource: African Entomology 5, pp 19 –27 (1997)More Less
The morphometric characters and sting pheromones of worker honeybees, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, were analysed by multivariate methods to identify discrete populations in the southeastern woodland savanna of Africa. A discrete population in Mozambique is classified as A. m. litorea Smith, a second in Zimbabwe as A. m. scutellata Lepeletier and a third group in southwestern Zambia as A. m. adansonii Latreille. A zone of introgression between the last two subspecies occurs in south-central Zambia and in the Zambezi Valley.
A new genus and two new species of the subtribe Thomassetiina (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from South AfricaAuthor C.L. BellamySource: African Entomology 5, pp 29 –33 (1997)More Less
A new genus of Buprestidae, Roswitha, is descriptionbed for two new spedes, R. endroedyi and R. bilyi, from South Africa. Roswitha endroedyi is from Berlin Forest Reserve, Mpumalanga Province, and R. bilyi is from East London, Eastern Cape Province. These taxa are placed within the subtribe Thomassetiina of the nominate subfamily and tribe and compared with taxa from southern Africa.
Oviposition, development and searching behaviour of Cotesia flavipes Cameron and Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in relation to aestivating and non-aestivating Chilo spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae in maizeSource: African Entomology 5, pp 35 –39 (1997)More Less
Oviposition, development and searching behavior of Cotesia flavipes Cameron and Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) on aestivating Chilo spp. and non-aestivating Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) larvae were investigated. Oviposition experiments indicated that parasitoids readily accepted aestivating and non-aestivating larvae for oviposition under laboratory conditions. The development times of C. flavipes from egg to adult emergence in aestivating compared with non-aestivating host larvae were not significantly different. Field-cage studies demonstrated that C. flavipes and C. sesamiae were unable to locate and paraSitize aestivating Chilo spp. larvae in dry maize stems. Parasitization of non-aestivating C. partellus larvae was significantly higher in cages where C. flavipes was released (26.21 %) than in cages where C. sesamiae was released (11.32 %).
Glandular trichomes on the exotic Solanum sisymbriifolium Lamarck (Solanaceae): effective deterrents against an indigenous South African herbivoreSource: African Entomology 5, pp 41 –50 (1997)More Less
An examination of the leaves of several native and exotic Solanum species revealed that they all possessed glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The density of glandular trichomes was, however, very much lower on the leaves of the indigenous species than on the leaves of a weed species, Solanum sisymbriifolium Lamarck, and two other South American Solanum species. This difference could have contributed to the depauperate faunas supported by the exotic species. The morphology and behaviour of an indigenous Solanum-feeding tortoise beetle, Conchyloctenia tigrina Oliver (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and a South American tortoise beetle, Gratiana spadicea (IQug) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were compared. The study revealed that while the exudate produced by the glandular trichomes afforded S. sisymbriifolium a level of resistance to C. tigrina, it is probably only one of the factors limiting the recruitment of indigenous herbivores onto S. sisymbriifolium.
Review and systematic placement of the Afrotropical genus Lacconotopedilus Pic (Coleoptera: Mycteridae: Lacconotinae)Source: African Entomology 5, pp 51 –56 (1997)More Less
The Afrotropical genus Lacconotopedilus Pic is reviewed, based on an examination of 39 adult specimens. The genus belongs in the subfamily Lacconotinae (Mycteridae), on the basis of salient features of the adult. Lacconotopedilus is redescriptionbed and compared with other genera of Lacconotinae and the male of L. singularicornis Pic is descriptionbed for the first time. A diagnosis, descriptionption and distribution map are provided for the two constituent species.
Multivariate analysis of honeybees, Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae), of the Horn of AfricaSource: African Entomology 5, pp 57 –64 (1997)More Less
Morphometric characters and sting pheromones of worker honeybees, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, were analysed by multivariate methods to delineate the honeybee populations of the Horn of Africa. Four discrete and statistically homogeneous populations were identified: A. m. jemenitica Ruttner, A. m. bandasii Mogga, A. m. sudanensis Rashad in Ethiopia and an unclassified group in southwestern Somalia. Areas of high intercolonial variance are interpreted as zones of hybridization between the populations.
Source: African Entomology 5, pp 65 –69 (1997)More Less
Three new species of Mycterus Clairville are descriptionbed and illustrated: M. gracilicornis (Western Cape Province, South Africa), M. bisulcatus (Western Cape Province, South Africa) and M. apicalis (Zalre, Bandundu Province). These are the first species of Mycterus recorded from the Southern Hemisphere, representing a biogeographically significant range extension for the genus and the subfamily Mycterinae.
Establishment and dispersal of Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an exotic endoparasitoid of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in northern TanzaniaSource: African Entomology 5, pp 71 –75 (1997)More Less
Cotesia flavipes. an Asian endoparasitoid of cereal stem borers, was recovered in the Tarime and Magu Districts in northern Tanzania in 1995. No recoveries of the parasitoid were made from other areas of Tanzania during the survey, including the Ukiriguru and Kilosa areas, where the parasitoid had been released in 1970. It was consequently concluded that the parasitoid spread into Tanzania from a founding population that may have inadvertently been released from the Mbita Point Field Station of ICIPE in 1991. The southernmost point from which C. flavipes was recovered was 240 km from Mbita Point, the dispersal rate of the parasitoid was estimated to be 60 km per year.
A revision of the Yelicones species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) from Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with descriptions of four new speciesSource: African Entomology 5, pp 77 –91 (1997)More Less
The braconid wasp genus Yelicones Cameron from Africa and the Arabian Peninsula is revised. Eight species are recognized. Four new species are descriptionbed: Y. africana and Y. gessi from South Africa; Y. minutus from Nigeria; Y. nigromaculatus from the Seychelles and South Africa. Yelicones vojnitsi Papp, originally descriptionbed from Tanzania, is recorded from Oman, Egypt, Niger, Senegal, Kenya, Namibia and South Africa; intraspecific variation is documented. Yelicones divaricatus Papp, originally descriptionbed from Kenya, is recorded from Niger; Y. elegans Papp, originally descriptionbed from Tanzania, is recorded from Nigeria and South Africa. An identification key is provided.
Vectorial capacity, species diversity and population cycles of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from indoor light-trap collections in a house in southeastern TanzaniaAuthor J.D. CharlwoodSource: African Entomology 5, pp 93 –101 (1997)More Less
Mosquitoes were collected by means of a light-trap operated for 45 nights in a house in southeastern Tanzania during the rainy season of 1989. Forty eight thousand and forty nine anophelines of 12 species were collected. The plot of number caught versus rank order was best descriptionbed by a log series. The overall Simpson index of diversity was 0.71. A maximum correlation between the index of diversity and rainfall occurred after a nine-day lag. Anopheles gambiae s.l., An. funestus Giles and An. squamosus Theobald were the most common mosquitoes, accounting for 38 %,25 % and 25 % of the total collected. Parous rates were similar in all three species. Time-series estimates of survival rate based on time-series analysis were not possible due to non-significant cross correlations between nulliparous and parous insects. Survival, from parous rate determination, was estimated to be 0.79, 0.78 and 0.79 per day. Sporozoite rates, determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in An. Gambiae s.1. and An. funestus were 1.2 % and 0.7 % respectively. All other species tested were negative. Numbers of An. squamosus varied according to rainfall. 7.9 % of the An. Squamosus were infected with a nematode parasite. The population of An. funestus peaked just before the the rice harvest, when a maximum of 1275 individuals were collected during one night. Peak An. welleomi Theobald numbers were recorded in May after the main rains had ended. Numbers of An. coustani Laveran and An. ziemanni Grunberg fluctuated synchronously.
Banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestations of cooking- and beer-bananas in adjacent plantations in UgandaAuthor M.I. Gold, C.S. & BagabeSource: African Entomology 5, pp 103 –108 (1997)More Less
Banana-weevil populations and associated damage were studied in adjacent plantations of highland cooking-bananas (cultivar Kibuzi) and introduced beer-bananas (cv. Kisubi) on a farm in central Uganda. Weevil density and mobility were assessed using mark and rerapture techniques. Residual banana corms and pseudostems were evaluated for weevil damage at various intervals following harvest. Newly harvested cooking-bananas revealed moderate weevil damage that reached the corm centre, whereas damage to beer-bananas was light and restricted to the corm periphery. Weevils attacking beer-bananas preferred post-harvest residues to growing plants and post-harvest stems were far more susceptible to attack than post-harvest corms. Despite the resistance of Kisubi plants, weevil captures and population densities were always higher than those in the Kibuzi plantation. There was no obvious migration of weevils between the two plantations. High weevil populations in beer-banana plantations appear to originate from post-harvest residues and have been maintained by a combination of factors, particularly soil moisture. Yield loss in beer-bananas was probably limited since attack was largely confined to post-harvest residues.
Biology of the Australian tortoise beetle Trachymela tincticollis (Blackburn) (Chrysomelidae: Chrysomelini: Paropsina). a defoliator of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae). in South AfricaAuthor J.J. Tribe, G.D. & CillieSource: African Entomology 5, pp 109 –123 (1997)More Less
An Australian tortoise beetle, Trachymela tincticollis (Blackburn), was discovered near Cape Town in 1982 on severely defoliated Eucalyptus gomphocephala DC trees. By 1985 it had spread 800 kin to Port Elizabeth. Both adults and larvae feed on the new leaves of 13 Eucalyptus species cultivated in South Africa, including the important commercial species E. grandis Hill ex Maiden. Females laid an average of 11 eggs per day from mid-August to the end of December. Eggs were laid at dusk in fissures 0.5-1.0 mm wide in the bark of the host tree and the number of batches laid per day was largely determined by the amount of food available. Larvae hatched after four-and-a-half days and hid in fissures near their feeding sites during the day. They had a bimodal activity pattern, feeding just before sunrise (93 %) or after sunset (7 %). There were four larval instars before pupation in the soil below the host tree. Larvae were active from September to February with a peak in numbers in November which was synchronous with the annual leaf-flush of the host trees. Total development time from egg to adult emergence was 35 days. The sex ratio was approximately 1:1. Various traps were used to monitor the phenology of the different life stages. Adults flew at canopy height and dispersed mainly in February and March. This study formed part of a successful biological control programme in which the introduction of the egg parasitoid Enoggera reticulate Naumann (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) achieved a parasitism rate of 96 %.
Revision of the otiteselline fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae), I: the Otitesella digitata species-group of the Afrotropical Region, with a key to Afrotropical species of Otitesella WestwoodSource: African Entomology 5, pp 125 –147 (1997)More Less
The Afrotropical representatives of the Otitesella digitata species-group are revised. This group of fig wasps is characterized by the presence of two apterous male morphological forms. The species group is centred in the Indo-Australasian Region, with a single descriptionbed species hitherto known from Africa. The females and both male forms of the following new species are descriptionbed: O. longicauda, O. nefdti, O. pseudoserrata and O. rotunda. The strict host-specificity of these fig wasps provides an indication of their potential distribution based on the distribution of their Ficus host-species (Moraceae). A key is provided to all descriptionbed Afrotropical species of Otitesella, including both sexes and both male morphological forms.
Histeridae (Coleoptera) associated with cycads in South Africa, with taxonomic notes on Afrotropical Exosternini (354KBAuthor P.** Yelamos, T.* & KanaarSource: African Entomology 5, pp 149 –154 (1997)More Less
Pachycraerus chalybeus (Fiihraeus), P. desidiosus Marseul and Diabletes fossistoma (Marseul) are recorded from cones and stems of several species of Encephalartos Lehmann (Gymnospermae: Cycadales) from South Africa. Pachycraerus spatiosus Lewis, formerly a synonym of P. cyanescens Erichson, is proposed as a new synonym of P. alluaudi Marseul. The genus Diabletes Reichardt is transferred from the tribe Platysomatini to the tribe Exosternini, based on the structure of the antennal club. Diabletes fossistoma (Marseul) is redescriptionbed. A key to the Afrotropical genera of Exosternini with S-shaped tarsal grooves on the protibiae is also provided.