African Entomology - Volume 5, Issue 2, 1997
Volumes & issues
Volume 5, Issue 2, 1997
Phloem-feeding by the leafhopper Acia lineatifrons (Naude) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) and wild blackberry, Rubus chrysocarpus (Smith)Author E. MaraisSource: African Entomology 5, pp 177 –180 (1997)More Less
The food source of Acia lineatifrons (Naude) was studied on grapevines and wild blackberry. The reaction of honeydew, collected from leafhoppers while feeding, with ninhydrin and bromocresol green indicated that the insects tap phloem on both host plants and this was confirmed by microscope-slide sections of leafhoppers that were fixed while feeding. The microscopic study also showed that stylet penetration is intracellular. Since A. lineatifrons feeds on phloem, it could act as a vector of phloem-restricted grapevine disease organisms such as leafroll virus.
Author D.A. BarracloughSource: African Entomology 5, pp 181 –193 (1997)More Less
Afrocamilla Barraclough was hitherto a small genus of Camillidae (four species) known only from South Africa, Ethiopia and the southwestern United States of America. The family Camillidae and Afrocamilla are recorded here from tropical Africa for the first time. Four new species are descrlbed:A adusta(Tanzania),A exculta(Gambia), A londti and freidbergi (Kenya).
Multivariate analysis of honeybee populations, Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from western central Africa: morphometries and pheromonesSource: African Entomology 5, pp 195 –204 (1997)More Less
Morphometric characters and sting pheromones of worker honeybees, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, were analysed by multivariate methods to characterize their populations along a transect through three ecological-climatological zones in Cameroon. There are three distinct homogeneous populations and two zones of hybridization. These bees are designated as A. m. adansollii Latreille whose area of distribution is intruded by an A. m. montieola-like montane group of bees and a third group, A. m. jemertitica Ruttner. The delineation of the hybrid zones is supported by intercolonial variance spectra and these significant asymmetries are coincident with transitions between the ecological-climatological zones.
The distribution and protection status of selected antlion species (Nel.lroptera: Myrmeleontidae) in South AfricaSource: African Entomology 5, pp 205 –216 (1997)More Less
Published distribution data, in the form of specimen collection records, for 23 species of Myrmeleontidae form the basis of this preliminary investigation into the protection of South African antlions. Two iterative priority area selection algorithms are used to: (1) determine near-minimum sets of sites for complete antlion species representation and (2) to assess the adequacy of the current reserve system for the conservation of selected antHon taxa. This is carried out by pre-selecting sites containing both antlion data and existing conservation areas and using these as starting points around which to select further sites in a complementary manner until species representation is complete. Priority areas for antlion conservation are concentrated in the southwestern regions of South Africa while areas of highest species richness are situated in the central Karoo and northwestern regions. Pre-selection of grid squares containing conservation areas results in decreased numbers of additional grid squares required for completing antHon representativeness, indicating that the existing reserves make some contribution to antlion conservation. The Fynbos, Nama-Karoo and Succulent Karoo biomes are shown to be important areas for antHon representation. These biomes have also been recognized as under-represented in the current conservation area system and as being of conservation importance for other taxa by various authors.
A metabolic neuropeptide from the corpus cardiacum of antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae): purification and identificationAuthor G. GadeSource: African Entomology 5, pp 213 –230 (1997)More Less
By applying heterologous bioassays to migratory locusts and American cockroaches, the corpora cardiaca of adult antlions of the genera Palpares Rambur and Golafrus Navas were found to contain factors that increase haemolymph lipids and carbohydrates respectively. Isolation of the active compound using reversed-phase liquid chromatography revealed that it is apparently identical in all the antlion species investigated. The primary structure, identified by pulsed-liquid phase sequencing using Edman chemistry and electrospray mass spectrometry, identified the compound as an octapeptide (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Thr-GlyTrp-NH2), which is a typical member of the large adipokinetic hormone/red pigmentconcentrating hormone family. Such a peptide, denoted Grb-AKH, had previously been identified in certain orthopteran insects. It is suggested that the peptide provides metabolite mobilization during flight in adult antlions.
Author C.L. BellamySource: African Entomology 5, pp 217 –224 (1997)More Less
The original authorship for 20 generic names of Buprestidae is discussed. Eighteen names first proposed by Saunders, but traditionally credited to other subsequent authors, are reattributed to Saunders (1868, 1871): Agaeocera 1871, Aglaostola 1871, Amyia 1871, Anilara 1868, Briseis 1871, Chalcogenia 1871, Chalcophoropsis 1871, Chalcoplia 1871, Chalcopoecila 1871, Hilarotes 1871, Icaria 1871, LamprocheiIa 1871, Merimna 1871, Neocuris 1868, Nothomorpha 1871, Ocypetes 1871, Pasiphae 1871, Scaptelytra 1871. Trigonongenium is considered to have first been used by von Harold (1869) rather than by Gemminger & von Harold (1869) and Julodimorpha is attributed to Gemminger & von Harold (1869) instead of the subsequent use by Thomson (1878). Type species are designated for the first time or changed to reflect these authorship changes as follows: Ptosirna irrorata Gory for Ocypetes, Buprestis mannerheimii von Mannerheim for Hilarotes, Buprestis quadrifoveolata Laporte & Gory for Chalcophoropsis, Anthaxia contempta von Marmerheim for Chalcogenia, Anthaxia fortnumi Hope for Neocuris and Eumerus vioIacea Gory & Laporte for Amyia. Ocypetes Saunders, 1871, is established as the senior synonym for Tylauchenia Burmeister, 1872. Aubertia Thery is reinstated as the senior synonym of Eumerophilus Deyrolle.
Intergeneric associations of stizopinid tenebrionids relative to their geographical distribution (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Opatrini: Stizopina)Source: African Entomology 5, pp 231 –239 (1997)More Less
All except one species of the southern African stizopinid genus Eremostibes Koch are found in common burrows with different subspecies of Parastizopus armaticeps Peringuey. In the absence of P. armaticeps, they occur with a species of its closest generic relative, Ellllychiatus Koch. Plallostihes namaqua Peringuey occupies this niche outside the range of Eremostibes in the Western Cape Province. The ranges of the associating species show extensive overlap. All species are nocturnal, fossorial detritivores with specific microhabitat requirements, P. armaticeps being subsocial and constructing subterranean foodstores. Eremostibes opacus Koch is an olfactory mimic and cleptoparasite of P. armaticeps in the Kalahari Desert. Evidence that the other associations are not coincidental is presented, and the taxonomic validity of the genera Eremostibes and Plallostibes Mulsant & Rey and the subspecies of Parastizopus is discussed in relation to behavioural, chemical and ecological parameters. Similar associations between freeliving, close generic relatives are unknown in other Coleoptera.
Source: African Entomology 5, pp 241 –260 (1997)More Less
Labiobaetis Novikova & Kluge is recorded from the Afrotropical Region for the first time. Six new species are descriptionbed: Labiobaetis aquacidus (South Africa and Kenya), L. fabulosus (Madagascar), L. masai (Kenya), L. nadineae (South Africa), L. piscis (South Africa) and L. plumbago (Madagascar). Eight species previously assigned to the genera Baetis Leach, Cymulabaetis McCafferty & Waltz or Pseudocloeon Klapalek are transferred to Labiobaetis: L. balcanicus (Miiller-Liebenau & Soldan), L. boussoulius (Gillies), L. cleopatrae (Thomas & Soldan), L. elouardi (Gillies), L. insolitus (Kopelke), L. kalengoensis (Kopelke), L. mtonis (Gillies), and L. vinosus (Barnard). The last species is redescriptionbed from many additional specimens from South Africa. The wider range of morphological variation and gradation now apparent from the study of Afrotropical species of Labiobaetis indicates that Cymulabaetis is no longer sustainable as a separate genus and is placed as a junior synonym of Labiobaetis. Labiobaetis is distinguished within the Baetis complex of genera by the presence of a distomedial constriction or concavity on maxillary palp segment 2 in the larvae. Most species also possess a distolateral notch on the antennal scapes.
Termite (lsoptera) distributions, endemism, species richness and priority conservation areas: consequences for land-use planning in South AfricaSource: African Entomology 5, pp 261 –271 (1997)More Less
Spatial analyses of distribution patterns of selected termite taxa surveyed during the National Survey of Isoptera were used to compare various procedures for determining priority conservation areas for termites. Species richness and endemism hotspots are spatially separated. Selecting species-rich areas is shown to be inefficient while the use of complementarity-based procedures requires less land for achieving species representativeness. In addition, different complementarity-based procedures (equal species weighting, endemicity, taxonomic distinctiveness and a combination of endemism and taxonomic distinctiveness) vary in their land-use efficiency and in the extent to which they are congruent with areas containing formally protected areas as well as richness and endemism hotspots. As ecosystem engineers, termites are required for the maintenance of ecosystem functions in both conservation and production landscapes. Thus, the use of traditional protection strategies for termites appear insufficient and strategies that pursue production objectives within conservation constraints through adaptive management are required. We consequently propose a dual strategy. The first is aimed at the conservation of termite taxa in a core representative network. Second, we propose the establishment of a supplementary network of sites, comprising multiple representations of each species, for the experimental monitoring of termite persistence under different land-uses (indicator taxa).
Two new host-restricted restioid leafhoppers of the genus Cephalelus Percheron (Cicadellidae: Cephalelini), with descriptions of the females of C. brevipilus Davies, C. daviesi Davies and C. rawsonia DaviesSource: African Entomology 5, pp 273 –281 (1997)More Less
Two new species of restioid leafhoppers of the genus Cephalelus Percheron are descriptionbed. Cephalelus pickeri sp. n. is oligophagous on Elegia filacea Mast. and Hypodiscus Iaevigatus (Kunth) Linder, whereas C. Linderi sp. n. is monophagous on Rhodocoma capensis Nees ex Steud. The females of C. brevipilus Davies, C. daviesi Davies and C. rawsonia Davies are descriptionbed. Davies' (1988) key to males of the South African genera and species of Cephalelini is revised. ?
Author D.M. Picker, M.D. & StevensSource: African Entomology 5, pp 283 –294 (1997)More Less
Larvae of the southern African stonefly genera Aphanicerca Tillyard, Desmonemoura Tillyard, Aphanicercapsis Barnard, Afronemoura lllies, Aphanicercella Tillyard and Balinskycercella Stevens & Picker are descriptionbed for the first time. Setal and other characters facilitate simple and accurate generic identification, and often specific identification. A key to the larvae of stonefly genera is provided. Diagnostic abdominal setal patterns of most of the widespread species (13 of the 22 known species) are illustrated. Although the examination of black-wingpad larvae with adult genitalia visible through the cuticle remains the most reliable means of specific identification, the rarity of this stage of the life cycle necessitates examination of the more abundant immature stages.
A mosquito survey of Thomo village, Northern Province, South Africa, with special reference to the bionomics of exophilic members of the Anopheles funestus group (Diptera: Culicidae)Source: African Entomology 5, pp 295 –299 (1997)More Less
Thomo village, in the Northern Province of South Africa, experiences low-level malaria transmission during the summer months. All houses in the village are sprayed regularly with DDT and no mosquitoes are found resting indoors. In 1987-1989 mosquito surveys were undertaken to establish the anopheline species composition and their outdoor biting and resting preferences. Exophilic members of the Anopheles funestus Giles group were the most abundant species, with 85.8 % of the total catch (n = 23 252) belonging to this group. However, of those species attracted to humans, An. coustani Laveran was the most abundant at 70.1 % (n = 2994) followed by the An. funestus group at 28.1 %. Both An. coustani and the An. funestus group were collected within the first two hours after sunset throughout the year. Adults of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex were collected from landing-catches and resting outdoors (n = 245) and from larval collections (n = 225). Of these, 155 and 164 respectively were identified electrophoretically as An. quadriannulatus (Theobald). No An. arabiensis Patton were recorded.
The genus Benoinyssus Fain (Acari: Eupodidae) from southern Africa, with descriptions of five new speciesAuthor P.D. Olivie, P.A.S. & TheronSource: African Entomology 5, pp 301 –318 (1997)More Less
The genus Benoinyssus is diagnosed and additional morphological features are identified. Eupodes ereynetoides Strandtmann & Prasse and E. momeni Abou-Awad are transferred to Benoinyssus. Five new species, B. serratus, B. ornatus, B. falcatus, B. pusillus and B. celatus, are descriptionbed and illustrated. An identification key to the eight species of Benoinyssus is provided.
Field observations on oviposition of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae), in an unsprayed apple orchard in South AfricaSource: African Entomology 5, pp 319 –336 (1997)More Less
Oviposition of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus), was studied from 1985 to 1989 in unsprayed apple orchards on the Elgin Experiment Farm, Grabouw, Western Cape Province. There was a significant difference in the site of oviposition, more eggs being recorded from the bottom half of the western and southern aspects of the tree. There was also contingency between the time of year and level (upper half, lower half) in the tree. Moths of the first generation preferred the bottom half of the tree and second and third generation moths the top half of the tree. The preferred oviposition sites on Granny Smith (GS) and Golden Delicious (GD) cultivars, in order of preference, were leaves, fruit and wood. More eggs were laid on the fruit of GS spurs (35.6 %) than on those of GD spurs (10.7 %). On fruit spurs, there was a Significant increase in the number of eggs on GD leaves, and GS fruit over the season, whereas the number of eggs on GS leaves and GD fruit remained constant. On branches, there was an increase in the number of eggs on GD and GS leaves, but not on the fruit or wood. The distribution within different fruit-bearing classes (1-4 fruit per spur) was random only for one fruit per spur, while on the other spur classes clustering occurred.