oa African Entomology - The morphology and phenology of the white coffee stem borer, Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a pest of Arabica coffee
The life cycle of the white coffee stem borer was studied at Schoemansdal Coffee Estate in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. The main emergence period of adult beetles was during mid December just after the first summer rains. A single emergence occurred each year. Mean longevity of female and male beetles was 122 and 112 days, respectively. Female beetles laid an average of 80.5 eggs during their life span. The male-biased sex ratio was 1.4. Oviposition peaked in the middle of January. Early-instar ringbarking larvae fed mainly on phloem and cambium tissue. This phase lasted approximately 14 weeks. Larvae of three months and older fed mainly on xylem tissue. Pupation occurred in specially prepared pupal chambers. A single pupal period occurred during September to December. Adult beetlesusually did not cause significant damage, although shoots and green twigs were occasionally ringbarked.
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