Ekklesiastikos Pharos - Volume 94, Issue 1, 2012
Volume 94, Issue 1, 2012
Source: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94 (2012)More Less
It is with great sadness that we say farewell to Professor Charalambos Papastathis, a great scholar, a good friend, a well-known humanist and a member of the Editorial Board of Ekklesiastikos Pharos and the Institute for Afro-Hellenic Studies, who was also a friend of South Africa, which he has visited and where he gave lectures.
Author W.J. HendersonSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 1 –22 (2012)More Less
Palladas comes across as a pessimistic, ever-complaining and highly critical kind of poet, who attacks people, complains about his condition in life, mocks the old gods and his fellow-Greeks, and sees only the worst side of life. But many of his epigrams are lighter, more playful and sympathetic and have been largely neglected by scholars. This article offers a closer examination of epigrams that deal with human weaknesses such as avarice, insincere love, cowardice, ignorance, flattery and garrulity.
True and false prophecy : relating a perspective from the Book of Jeremiah to the Pentecostal/Charismatic tradition : research articleAuthor W.J. WesselsSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 23 –42 (2012)More Less
Prophecy is one of the distinctive characteristics of the Pentecostal and Charismatic traditions. The phenomenon of prophecy, however, has a long tradition that played a significant role in the Old Testament. The problem of true and false prophecy also has a long history and was, in particular, a burning issue in the time of Jeremiah. In a time of crisis in the years just before the Babylonian exile, contradictory prophetic voices caused much confusion amongst the people of Judah. Several passages in the book of Jeremiah highlight the conflict between the prophets who all claim to speak in the name of YHWH. In Jeremiah 23:9-40, a collection of oracles on true and false prophecy, this issue is addressed once more. In combination with the cycle of kings in 21:1-23:8, the message is that the leadership in Judah has failed. Both the civil and the religious leaders have failed the people and contributed to the resulting Babylonian exile. The aim of this article is to discuss the issue of false prophecy by focusing on 23:9-40. The discussion focusses on the following aspects as it evolves from the mentioned cycle regarding the prophets: the commission to be a prophet, the content of prophecies, the means of revelation to the prophets and the ethical conduct of the prophets. The idea is to relate the findings of the discussion to the ongoing debate regarding what defines a true prophet and a false prophet.
Crusading warfare in Frankish Greece : an examination of the descriptions of battles in the Greek version of the Chronicle of Morea : research articleAuthor Savvas KyriakidisSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 43 –58 (2012)More Less
The Chronicle of Morea is a main narrative source for the conquest and occupation of former Byzantine territories by the armies of the Fourth Crusade. The aim of this article is to discuss the accounts of battles that can be found in the chronicle and to investigate the extent to which they reflect contemporary military practice, thought and ideals. Special attention will be paid to the reasoning behind the descriptions of battles and not to their accuracy or lack of it. Moreover, the present study examines the importance of this chronicle for understanding the extent to which the Latin armies of Frankish Greece modified their style of fighting through contact with a hostile culture in an alien environment.
Source: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 59 –71 (2012)More Less
The present paper is an attempt to reconstruct the history of the Peloponnesian peninsula during the course of the First Venetian-Ottoman war (1463-1479) and especially during its first decade, when the most important military events took place. It is based on the most important narrative sources, both Greek and Latin. The main Greek narrative sources are the texts of Kritoboulos of Imbros, George Sphrantzes, Laonikos Chalkokondyles and Theodorus Spandunes. From the Latin point of view we have the testimony of two major important chroniclers: Domenico Malipiero's Annali Veneti and the text of Giacomo Bosio, the historiographer of the Hospitaller Knights. We are also provided with informations by the Venetian chronicle named "Cronica Zena".
Author Pinelopi KazaSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 72 –85 (2012)More Less
This article examines George Gemistos-Plethon's personality and thought, a Greek neo-platonic philosopher of the late Byzantine Period. The problems of Byzantium were his main motive for the presentation of a theory dealing with the revival of the state. His analysis of the errors that the emperors and the authorities had made till then and the manner in which the situation could ameliorate constitute the main themes of and reasons for Plethon's theory about society, army, politics, law and economy, which were, however, not endorsed by the Orthodox Church. He constructed a theory about society, policy, and economy that is relevant even nowadays.
La politique romaine en Nubie à travers la campagne de C. Petronius et l'expedition des prétoriens de Néron : research articleAuthor Kizobo O'bweng-OkwessSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 86 –94 (2012)More Less
Roman policy in Nubia as seen through the campaign of C. Petronius and the expedition of Nero's Praetorian Guard
The history of relations between Rome and Nubia has one constant: a permanent concern among the Romans and earlier among the Persians, Greeks and others to gain a foothold in Egypt and from there to extend into the interior of Africa. In their contact with Nubians, the Romans resorted both to diplomacy and warfare. There are clear traces of both peaceful and bellicose relations between Rome and Nubia in the writings of authors such as Pliny the Elder, Seneca Î±nd Strabo.
The border troops of the Roman-Byzantine
Southern Egyptian limes : problems and remarks on the role of the African and 'black' African military units : research articleAuthor B. HendrickxSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 95 –114 (2012)More Less
This article examines the composition of the Roman-Byzantine border troops of the Egyptian-Nubian limes with special reference to the role of African and 'black' African units or individual soldiers as stratiotai, limitanei, foederati, symmachoi, bucellarioi and nautai. Their role during the Muslim Arab conquest of Egypt is assessed with special reference to Copts, Beja and Nubians. Attention is also given to the episode of the so-called 'common' Byzantine-Axumite fight against the 'Homeritai' of Dhu Nuwas (during the reign of Justin I).
Author Hennie StanderSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 115 –122 (2012)More Less
In this study I will critically discuss Chrysostom's treatment of power and violence in his "Commentary on Psalms". When the Jews suffer from violence, Chrysostom believes that it is justified because they have tortured Christ. However, when God is described as a Warrior in the Psalms, Chrysostom is faced with a problem. On the one hand, he interprets it spiritually, but on the other hand he was a defender of the literal interpretation of the Antiochene School. But neither did he want to support the literal interpretation of the Anthropomorphites which he believed was an attack on the divine character of God. At the end it will become clear that Chrysostom's statements regarding violence are imbedded in his own social, theological and cultural world.
The 144,000 undefiled "Levites" of Revelation 14:1-5 and the link to the defiled watchers of 1 Enoch 1-36 : research articleSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 123 –136 (2012)More Less
The myth of the fallen angels in the apocalyptic book of 1 Enoch 1-36 has recently received excellent scholarly attention. Our concern is the theological message of the book and the possible application to John's Apocalypse in his description of the 144,000 in Revelations 14:4 as: "... it is these who have not defiled themselves with women, for they are virgins; these follow the Lamb wherever He goes." (NRSV). As Olson uniquely argues: "... the passage has elicited a variety of interpretations, but what has been consistently missed is that Rev 14:4a is a conscious allusion to the Book of Enoch (1 Enoch)" (1997:493). Explained further, John probably seems to be applying this metaphor as an allusion to the fallen angels of 1 Enoch 1-36, with the intent of forming an anti-image for his readers. In his apparent alluding to the myth, it would seem that John is drawing an application from the story of the fallen angels for his readers. This view has to be theologically and exegetically proven. The study further suggests that, not only is there an allusion to the Fallen Watchers of 1 Enoch - which forms an anti-image to the 144,000 virgins; but the theological applicable message of 1 Enoch 1-36 point to the Old Testament Levitical System and more specifically, the 'doctrine of substitution', thus enabling the reader with clues to identify the 144,000 and to determine their function.
Power and the poetics of the pneuma : Paul's rhetorical framework in 1 Corinthians 12-14 : research articleAuthor Chris L. De WetSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 137 –157 (2012)More Less
aim of this study is to identify the components of Paul's rhetorical framework in 1 Corinthians 12-14 and establish the dynamics of each. It is shown that through Paul's rhetoric, he constructs the Corinthian Christian assembly as a collective pneumatic body. It is a body permeated and driven by the pneuma. The rhetorical framework of this corporeal poetics of pneuma consists of the following components: Paul's apostolic authority, the andronormative and androcentric ideology of Paul, the pneumatic taxonomy from 1 Corinthians 12, the one-body metaphor, the ethic of love from 1 Corinthians 13, and Paul's periodization of history. The subtle interplay and interconnectedness, even interdependence of these components serve to authorize the rhetorical construct of the pneumatic body, which is then in turn used as a strategy to control and regulate Christian bodies in the metropolitan city of Corinth.
Author Thekla Sansaridou-HendrickxSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 158 –168 (2012)More Less
By means of a parallel textual analysis and biographical notes, this article examines the conflicting way the geo-political notions of localism, nationalism, ethnicity, Hellenism, internationalism and universalism are treated by Nikos Kazantzakis in certain of his works and in the framework of the Marxist ideology.
Author Esmari FaullSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 169 –187 (2012)More Less
Some researchers have defined wellbeing as being content, happy, healthy and prosperous. It consists of experiencing enjoyment, completeness, and meaning, rather than merely avoiding pain and conflict. To experience personal wellbeing it is necessary that all aspects of being function in a healthy manner. Research on the relationship between the Christian religion and wellbeing has concluded that nurturing, non-punitive religion is associated with mental and physical health, and that active participation in church activities that enhances the member's social support system can be beneficial.
Source: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 188 –206 (2012)More Less
This article considers the ecojustice implications of Matthew 5-7 using the Habel six-principle ecojustice paradigm and the basic eco-feminist hermeneutic of suspicion and retrieval, in addition to traditional exegesis. Such an approach compels exegetes to suspect that there may be anthropocentric, patriarchal or andro-centric biases embedded in the biblical text. Matthew 5-7 reveals an ecotheological ethic that holds real promise for the aversion of further ecological injustice through human agency by addressing humans' deep-seated attitudes, aspirations and actions. Based on the regnum Dei, this ethic has five other related dimensions that are put in perspective.
Completely reestablished in Christ : man's deification as the supreme goal of the afterlife : research articleAuthor Razvan TatuSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 207 –221 (2012)More Less
The doctrine of deification is capital to Christianity. Founded on the unique event of the Incarnation of the second Person of the Holy Trinity, that is the Son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, it occupies a very special role within the Eastern Christian thought. We present in this study the essence of this doctrine as an important chapter eschatologically speaking. Its central meaning resides in the real communion of man and God, the supreme source of love and holinesss, as Trinity of Persons, as true participation of man in the uncreated energies of God, as brilliantly the theological conceptions of the Holy Church Fathers show.
Author H. ViviersSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 222 –247 (2012)More Less
In the divine discourses of the book of Job, the wonder and mystery of the natural world are vividly portrayed. Wild animals in particular are presented as pedagogic models to Job to teach him that he (humankind) is not the centre of the universe and that there is as much meaning to be found in the larger cosmic order, inclusive of chaos, as there is in the humanly experienced, predictable side of life. The smartness of these animals is revealed through their (elementary) mental capacities of self-awareness, emotions, perspective taking (mindreading) and beginnings of morality (eg parenting). The poet's keen intuitions and poetic descriptions of these traits have been confirmed by modern ethology. Where these mental capacities have in the past been reserved for humans only, it has become clear that we share these traits with animals, even though humans have evolved far beyond their animal past. The poet's subtext of humans' kinship with animals - therefore we can learn from them - becomes a subtle appeal also for our respect and care for the environment, an issue of critical urgency nowadays.
Τα Απομνημονεύματα της Ελληνικής Επανάστασης στο Μεταίχμιο της Ιστορίας και της Λογοτεχνίας : research articleAuthor Panayota G. KonstantopoulouSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 248 –259 (2012)More Less
Dans cet article on présente les Mémoires écrits par P. P. Germanos et F. Chryssanthopoulos (Fotakos) au 19me siècle. Les deux mémorialistes, qui avaient pris part à la lutte contre les Ottomans en 1821, expriment dans leurs oeuvres, leurs idées, leurs concepts en ce qui concerne le rôle du Clergé, des Procrites ainsi que des combattants Péloponnésiens. En plus, dans ces deux Mémoires on peut indiquer quel était le rôle que les citoyens de Kalavryta ont joué pendant la lutte pour la liberté et l'indépendance.
The representation of the Patriarchate of Alexandria at Ferrara-Florence & the fight against proselytization in the provinces from the 15th to 18th century : investigation on the basis of the sources : research articleAuthor V. KoukousasSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 260 –289 (2012)More Less
During the early Christianity period, Alexandria was not only a very important Church center but a cultural one as well. Its decline began after the city was seized by the Arabs. It remained under the occupation of the Mamluk Turks and then of the Ottoman Turks. Despite all the problems the Patriarchate of Alexandria had to face, it continued to constitute a united Church, which was always present in the fight for the defense of Orthodoxy. This was also the case during the Ferrara-Florence Council. During that Council the representatives of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, Metropolitan of Heraclia Antonios and Chancellor Grigorios, signed in favour of the unification with the Roman-Catholic (Latin) Church. But later on, the Seat of Apostle Mark changed its policy and decided to condemn the unification of the Eastern and Western Churches. The Roman Catholic Church decided then to proceed with proselytization tactics towards the Orthodox people of Alexandria but found a Uniate Church in Alexandria, after having realized that its unification policy in Egypt had failed. Many important figures, such as Patriarchs Meletios Pigas, Cyrill Loukaris, Metrofanis Kritopoulos, Matthew Psaltis and many others, objected vigorously to all of its tactics and became enlightened guides for their flock during that period. From the beginning of the 19th century onwards, when Muhammad Ali, well-known for his philhellenism, took over the governance of the area, the number of Greeks in the area increased significantly leading to a further empowerment of the Church of Alexandria. In essence this meant that the proselytization tactics on behalf of the Roman Catholic Church were eventually limited.
The metaphor "You are the temple of God" (1 Cor 3:16) as an ethical core moment in a Paulinic framework : research articleSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 290 –303 (2012)More Less
While the temple was still standing in Jerusalem, Paul confronted the faithful community in Corinth with the following rhetorical question: "Do you not know that you are the temple of God and the Spirit of God resides in you?" (1 Cor 3:16). What implications did this questions hold for that congregation and does it still have any hermeneutical value for the faithful community in the postmodern milieu in which we find ourselves today?
Author E. MantzarisSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 304 –315 (2012)More Less
The article attempts to tell the story of a pioneering Greek Orthodox missionary in Africa, Archimandrite Nikodemus Saricas, born in Asia Minor and a traveller through Africa during his lifetime. After exploring briefly a socio-historical portrait of Greek immigration to Africa and South Africa the article deals with the travels, efforts, failures and achievements of a visionary religious traveller whose main aims were to unite the immigrant Greeks under the eternal messages of Greek Orthodoxy and expand the religion's message of peace and love to indigenous African populations. The narrative takes us from the then Transvaal to Southern Rhodesia, Alexandria, Egypt, and Tanganyika where the tireless Servant of God deeply committed himself to serving Greeks and indigenous Africans simultaneously through schooling, religious services and welfare. His message of God, Humanity, Peace and Prosperity has been a beacon of Hope and has been continuously pursued at present by the Patriarchate of Alexandria.