Ekklesiastikos Pharos - Volume 94, Issue 1, 2012
Volume 94, Issue 1, 2012
Η χριστιανική διείσδυση στη Νοβατία πριν τον επίσημο εκχριστιανισμό της τον 6ο αιώνα : research articleAuthor Effrosyni ZacharopoulouSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 316 –332 (2012)More Less
This article examines the extent of the diffusion of Christianity in Nubia before the arrival of the official mission, dispatched for that purpose from Constantinople in the middle of the 6th century AD. The paper answers the following questions: how favourable were the conditions the Byzantine mission encountered in Nubia and what was the latter's role in Nubia's Christianisation?
An unusual prostitute heroine : the Ethiopic version of the hagiography of St. Mary of Egypt : research articleAuthor Selamawit MeccaSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 333 –353 (2012)More Less
The present essay tries to explore the construction of the female body in the Ethiopic (Ge'ez) version of the hagiography of Saint Mary of Egypt. This text is unusual for Ethiopian hagiographical tradition in terms of its organization and content. A careful reading of this symbolic text reveals multiple visions of women that often contradict the image the hagiographers wished to portray. This absurdity of the text is both the crux as well as source of the amazing characterizations of women, heroic as well as ordinary. Elevated and debased at once, the text is a paradox whose allure is the truth of female holiness.
Author Fotini FilippouSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 354 –374 (2012)More Less
This article examines the ownership of land and the rural economy in Thessaly from the Roman period up to the end of the Tourkokratia. The distinction between the powerful, rich occupants and the defeated, weak and poor labourers that depended on the former group has been a recurring phenomenon throughout the ages. The feudal lords of diverse and various ethnic origins controlled the Thessalian lands. Whenever Thessalian cultivators expressed the wish to own their own land, they were faced by the objection of the lords. By the beginning of the 20th century gradually the feudal system ceased to exist when the Greek State expropriated the land and redistributed it among its 'rightful' cultivators.
Author V. ChristidesSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 375 –396 (2012)More Less
In 645-646, the Byzantines attempted to recover Alexandria which was first captured by the Arab army under 'Amr bn. al-Āṣ in 641-142. The two Arab conquests of Alexandria are somewhat confused in most sources and actually there is no analytical description of the Arab conquest of the whole Egypt in general in any of them. Unfortunately, there is not any comprehensive work dealing thoroughly with the Arab conquest of Egypt save for A. J. Butler's admirable book, The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty Years of the Roman Dominion (Oxford 1902), revised by P. M. Fraser, which is now obsolete. The itinerary of the Arab army followed in the conquest of Egypt and the description of the agricultural Egyptian society on the eve of the Arab conquest do not belong within this context. Instead, the Arab siege of Babylon in Egypt and its capture is the starting point with only a succinct account of 'Amr's invasion of Egypt and his first conquest of Alexandria before the description of the second Arab conquest of it in 645-646. Special attention is given to the attitude of the various segments of the population of Alexandria and its surroundings towards the Byzantine invading army during the second Arab conquest. These different segments of the population appear in the Arabic sources with the vague terms Rūm and Qubá¹. Finally, the failure of the Byzantine military policy to undertake successful, long distance, sea born expeditions against the Arabs, in order to regain their lost territory, is stressed.
The Deutero-Pauline and Petrine haustafeln : early Christian oikonomia, pastoral governmentality and slave-management : research articleAuthor Chris L. De WetSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 397 –415 (2012)More Less
This study traces the discursive links between early Christian oikonomia, pastoral governmentality and slave-management in the Deutero-Pauline and Petrine haustafeln. It especially utilises the concepts of discipline, surveillance and governmentality as extrapolated by Michel Foucault. The Colossian and Ephesian household codes are approached as social contracts, in which certain liberties are given up for the sake of identity and group cohesion. Slaves should render obedience to masters. From this, the codes exhibit a strict hierarchical system, one that is authorised by a potent Christic panopticism. From the Pastoral Epistles the development of Christian pastoral governmentality, or pastoralism, is clearly seen, and with this, a culture of psychagogy related to slave-management. Slaves become the objects of normalization, which assumes a general delinquency of slaves. Finally, the unique stance of the Petrine codes admonishes slaves to embrace unjust suffering as a Christomorphic process; this promotion of suffering as slaves of God would pervade the very essence of Christian virtue discourse.
Το θεμα υπεροχής του Πάπα έναντι των άλλων Πατριαρχείων ως μία των αιτιών για το Σχίσμα : research articleAuthor Olga KourtoglouSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 416 –427 (2012)More Less
This article examines the theme of the 'supremacy' of the Pope of Rome over the other Christian Patriarchs as one of the reasons that led to the so-called Schism of the Byzantine Patriarch of Constantinople, Photios, in 867 AD, which officially separated - for the first time - the medieval Western (Catholic) Church from the Eastern (Orthodox) Church.
Author A. NicolaidesSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 428 –439 (2012)More Less
In Romans 4, we read, "He was handed over because of our offences, and was raised for the sake of our justification." The first part of the statement explains that Jesus died for our forgiveness, while the second part links His resurrection with our justification. Christ's death is not by itself enough to justify us without God's pardon. When Christ suffered and died, He was judged by God, and He was condemned to death in our place. When God resurrected Him again, we were acquitted by God in Christ's person. Christ justified us and declared us to be pure and innocent in Him. God's absolved all of humanity through total agape. It was for the reason that the justifying work was finished that resurrection was made possible. Failing this, we would all remain under the supremacy of death. The crucifixion of Jesus is not sufficient basis for our justification without God's pardoning of our sins but when Jesus died at Golgotha, His words, "It is finished" were a declaration that His atonement for the sins of the world was comprehensive. Paul states in Romans 4:23-25, that the gospel as demonstrated in the life of Abraham, was not just for him, but for all those who trust in God who raised our Lord Jesus from the dead.
Author P. StourasSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 440 –455 (2012)More Less
The Greek National Resistance started right after the capitulation between Greece and Germany on the 20th April 1941. Greeks responded immediately, especially in the big cities such as Athens, Thessaloniki and Patra. The aim of this article is to review the way National Resistance was organised in the areas of Kalavrita and Egialia and more specifically, to examine whether the local resistance groups were influenced by the Central Resistance and if the political parties took part in any of the local resistance groups.. Furthermore, the structure and the role of English missions in the area were studied. The written sources and interviews evoqued that the establishment of the 2 resistance groups in Kalavrita and Egialia were partially influenced by the National Resistance groups such as EAM, EDES, as well as by the political parties, especially the Communists. Finally, the English missions retained their policy to divide the areas they occupied in smaller sections. Their policy was sometimes helpful and sometimes preventive for the resistance groups.
Author Joseph Jacobus De BruynSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 456 –470 (2012)More Less
Applying cognitive linguistics to the text of Psalm 110 is shown to be indispensable for a more comprehensive understanding of this psalm. Studying the poet's use of the cognitive concepts 'right hand' and 'feet' as well as his reference to Zion, makes it possible to reconstruct the psalm as a form of 'body-cosmology'. In this more exegetical structure, Psalm 110 can be described as a liturgical poem which was possibly used during anointing ceremonies whilst inaugurating a king. Here, a mere human is transformed and re-created to be part of 'that which is above' and to rule with God over 'that which is below'. As part of the divine realm the king is created to be an extension of God's authority on earth.
Fire as prophecy? The relation between fire and prophecy as theophany in the Septuagint and with reference to the Revelation of John : research articleAuthor Gert J. SteynSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 471 –484 (2012)More Less
This investigation presents a brief survey of the interjection between the occurrences of fire imagery and its connections with prophecy as Theophany in the Greek Old Testament and with reference to the Revelation of John. Fire imagery frequently serves as a Leitmotif for God's revelatory presence. It is established that God's presence through fire imagery is closely connected with his message as part of divine revelation. Furthermore, this motif developed in one of two directions: sometimes with negative implications to humanity during God's wrath and judgement, i.e. during the process of the purification of his creation. At other times it developed with positive implications to humanity during God's mediation of his message of involvement and care, i.e. during the process of his glorification. It can be concluded that the connection between fire imagery and prophecy can be clearly observed in the Old Testament literature and that this connection is carried through into the Revelation of John. The fact of this connection could even be summarized in the statement that the mere presence of fire often functions as the revelatory presence of God and that this in itself serves as prophecy - either as a message of purification or of glorification. In this sense, "fire as revelation" might be understood to be "fire as prophecy".
Source: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 485 –492 (2012)More Less
The translation of the Hebrew phrase צוֺד הַיּוֹם נָּדֺוֺל (literally "the day is still big") in Genesis 29:7 in the Hebrew Bible is shown to be problematic in the large variety of translations that exist for this phrase. In Biblical Hebrew words and phrases have traditionally been translated literally, based on dictionaries which were written according to certain linguistic methodologies. The comparative philological and structuralist approaches failed to provide a solution to this problem, as can clearly be seen in the differing translations. This paper suggests that there is conceptual metaphor underlying this phrase which should be identified. The phrase in Genesis 29:7 is analysed according to the cognitive metaphor theory. The cultural and social background of this phrase is also discussed. Based and the analysis conceptual metaphor is suggested, namely A DAY IS A CONTAINER WITH ROOM FOR ACTIVITIES. A new translation for this verse is also suggested.
«Το καμάρι της Ελληνικής Παροικίας μας» : founding and early years of the 1st Hellenic Boy Scout Group in the Witwatersrand region (1952-1956) : documents - discussions - notices & reviewsAuthor Alkis DoucakisSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 494 –518 (2012)More Less
Little has been documented about the social history of the Hellenic community of the central Witwatersrand during the 1950s. The Hellenic Boy Scouts played a distinct role in this regard by celebrating religious feast days and organising events such as open picnics, dances and other functions that drew the community together. In addition, the maintenance of ethnic origins is vividly portrayed in the establishment of an entity such as the Hellenic Boy Scouts in the Diaspora. Primarily it is the church - our Greek Orthodox Church - that strives to maintain our ethnicity and it was our Church that was foremost in giving not only its blessing to the formation of the 1st Hellenic Scout Group, but initially it also made the grounds of the Holy Archbishopric available for the Scouts' use. The successes of the Hellenic Scouts triggered the formation of more entities for the Hellenic youth, such as Sunday Schools and yet more Scout groups.
Η Θεολογία της Εικόνας : Η περίπτωση της εικόνας 'Της γεννήσεως του Χριστού' : documents - discussions - notices & reviewsAuthor G. VlachosSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 519 –531 (2012)More Less
This article addresses the topic of the theology of the Byzantine icon. Initially, the way religion is expressed through the icon in the Orthodox East is discussed. General principles, rules, and the characteristics according to which icons are painted are mentioned. Also, the didactic, symbolic and dogmatic character of the icons is analysed. Finally, we present a theological approach of the "Birth of Jesus Christ" icon according to the elements which characterize the Byzantine icon.
Author Athanasius AkundaSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 532 –535 (2012)More Less
Culture is almost like nitrogen in everybody's existence and it is seen almost running the entire life of everyone. In this article I will explain how culture has been a great instrument of the strength of religion, especially the Christian religion, right from the biblical era till now.
Valenţe Creştine În Gândirea Lui Mircea Eliade (Christian Valences in the Thought of Mircea Eliade), Adrian Boldişor : book reviewAuthor Mac Linscott RickettsSource: Ekklesiastikos Pharos 94, pp 536 –539 (2012)More Less
To my knowledge, this is the first book to be published on Mircea Eliade's thought written by an Eastern Orthodox churchman. Professor Boldişor, the author, is not only a priest but he also holds a doctoral degree in the history of religions. Indeed, this volume is an enlarged version of his thesis. At the end of the first chapter the author states that "the discovery of Christian valences in Eliadean thought" is at the center of his work. "Eliade was influenced," he affirms, "more or less, implicitly or explicitly, by the milieu in which he was formed, Romanian Orthodoxy." Furthermore, the fact that Eliade's views have influenced Christians of all stripes is another proof of Eliade's Orthodoxy (p. 56). However, in many pages of his book, the author does not draw and explicit tie between Eliade's theories and Eastern Christian theology.